Confucianism is Confucius founded, Mencius developed, Zi is set its culmination, after continuous stretches, revered as the ancient Confucian passengers, still has a certain vitality of academic schools.
Confucianism was originally one of the hundred schools of pre-Qin scholars, and its founder was Confucius. Confucianism in the pre-Qin period and philosophers equal status. Then Emperor to maintain the feudal autocratic rule, obey Dong Zhongshu's" deposed 100, Confucianism proposals", implementation the idea of clamping the Confucian rise again.
The concepts of " Confucianism ", "Confucianism" and " Confucianism " must be distinguished. Confucianism as a doctrine, Confucianism as a class, and Confucianism as a kind of belief, three need to be distinguished.
Confucianism, also known as Confucianism, Confucianism, Confucius, and Mencius, hole Confucian thought, for the history of Confucianism passenger respected, originated in China and spread to the mainstream culture and influence other countries in East Asia around the same time ideological, philosophical, and religious systems. 5th century by the Confucius founded, bodiless from the Zhou Dynasty ritual tradition of benevolence, I am afraid, honesty, filial piety is the core value, focusing gentleman moral character, emphasizing the complementary benevolence and courtesy, attention to the five human relationships and family ethics, promote education and benevolent government, Criticizing tyranny, trying to rebuild the order of ritual and music, changing customs, and rich in the ideals of joining the world and the spirit of humanism.
Why is Confucian named Confucian, and what is the meaning of the word Confucian? This is something that many people have not sought for a deep understanding.
Zhou Li said: Confucian gains the way to the people. The so-called "Dao Dao" means courtesy and music, and benevolence and justice. The first to receive rituals and music is the Confucian Yuan Sheng Zhougong Ji Danye. Zhou Gong was a regent, built Luoyi for five years, and made ritual music for six years. Based on the Zhou system, he took into account the Yin rituals and formulated the land system, control system, lu system, music system, legal system, overflow system, guide system, and eldest son inheritance system. A fairly complete system of ordinances has been formed, which is called Zhou Li of Zhou Gong’s Code in the world. Zhou Gong has written chapters such as Daguo, Kangguo, Jiujiao, Zhouguan, and Lizheng, advocating the idea that destiny is not arrogant and destiny is superfluous. Words and deeds. Confucius yearned for Zhou Li and once had my oath from Zhou. Confucius worshipped Zhou Gong and paid his respects for a long time. Zeng said, I no longer dream of Zhou Gong and sigh. To read Zhou Gong’s code and visit Yuan Sheng’s relics, Confucius brought his disciple Nangong Jingshu into the Zhou Wenli Yu Lao Tan during the reign of King Zhou Jing and asked Yue Yu Changhong. Zhou Gong and the three generations of ritual and music were the forerunners of Confucianism. Luoyi became the ancestor of Chinese Confucianism.
In Zhang Taiyan's " Guo Gu Lun Heng ", Confucianism has three disciplines, namely Guan Da, Lei, and Shi, and Da is named Confucianism. Confucian, sorcerer. (" Shuowen ".) The name of Confucianism is out of necessity. For those who need it, the cloud is above the sky, and Confucianism also knows astronomy and drought. Confucianism refers to a profession that lives on religion and is responsible for various religious ceremonies such as funerals and sacrifices to gods. He said: "Confucianism is a teacher of rain, so it has evolved into the title of the sorcerer."
In Hu Shi's " Speaking of Confucianism ", based on the interpretation of "Confucianism" in the Eastern Han Dynasty Xu Shen's " Shuowen Jiezi ·Human Department": "Confucianism, softness, and sorcerer. From people, you need sound." And it is this Confucianism and Buddhism as soft, which has attracted many different opinions, and even different positions. Hu Shi believed that Confucianists were the survivors of Yin, and these people were reduced to funeral rites after the subjugation of the country. Confucianism was the contemptuous name for warlocks with such culture in Zhou Dynasty. Because of the country's subjugation, its culture can only exist in a weak state.
According to Xu Zhongshu's " Oracle Bone Inscriptions Dictionary ", Confucianism in Oracle bones is like a bathing body. Before the ancient primitive religion held the sacrifice ceremony, the priest must fast and bathe as a show of sincere respect. It not only proves that Hu Shi’s Confucianism was the first Yin Shang priest and religious clergy but also found evidence that Confucianism (non-Confucianism) was a religion.
Li Zhou also believes that Confucianism evolved from wizards. Confucius himself once said, "I am in harmony with history and witches, but I have a special return." But at the same time, he also pointed out that he is different from the warlock who specializes in communicating with ghosts and gods, "I just ask for virtue." Beginning with Confucius, the concept of "Confucianism" has changed, and has gradually fallen out of the scope of witch knowledge. Confucius was the first private school educator in Chinese history, known as "three thousand disciples and seventy-two wise men". He and his disciples spread the etiquette and various knowledge monopolized by the nobles in ancient times to the people and gradually formed a Confucian school. Therefore, Confucianism inherited the witchcraft culture since the Yin and Shang Dynasties and developed the tradition of ritual and music in the Western Zhou Dynasty. It is a school that emphasizes blood relatives, pursues practical merits, and the spirit of ethics and morality.
" Han Shu·Yiwenzhi ": "The Confucianists flowed from the officials of Situ, who helped the monarch to follow the Yin and Yang, and the Ming to teach. You Wen in the six classics, pay attention to the occasion of benevolence and righteousness, Zu Xuyao, Shun, charter The literary and martial arts, the master Zhongni, emphasizes his words, and the Tao is the highest."
Some people think that Confucianism refers to a profession that lives on religion, and is responsible for various religious ceremonies such as funeral and worship. "Confucianism is a teacher of rain, so it has evolved into a sorcerer's name" (" Guo Gu Lun Heng · Original Confucianism").
"Shuowen Jiezi": Confucianism, softness, and warlock. According to Guo Moruo's textual research, "Confucianism" was originally a contemptuous term. The title of Confucianism is not Confucius' own title, but rather the name of Confucius by Mohist school.
Zhuangzi's post-learning commented on Confucianism, "Sexual obedient, benevolent, benevolent and righteous, decorated with rituals and music, selected people, loyal to the world, and transformed into Qi people. Will benefit the world." (" Zhuangzi · Fisherman").
Confucius (former 551- 479), name Qiu, styled Zhong Ni, Lu Spring, and Autumn Period corner Yap (now Shandong Qufu ) people. The most famous thinkers, educators, and politicians in ancient China had a profound influence on the development of Chinese ideology and culture.
"Historical Records · Confucius Family" contains: "Since the emperor and prince, the six arts of Chinese dialect are compromised by the master. It can be described as the holiest!"
When the pre-Qin Confucianism and Mohist saying school of learning. He was hit hard in the time of Qin Shihuang, the so-called "burning books and pitting scholars". To the Han Dynasty, the Han Dynasty to the basic line of succession for three generations of the cultural construction of the Central Plains orthodox culture, and this culture is three generations of the Central Plains Six Classics of Confucianism, Confucius to inherit Chinese national culture known, thus Confucian culture itself is the essence of the Chinese nation. Respecting Confucianism because of the sutra is also one of the reasons why Confucianism has good luck. Confucius made the ancients, "Confucianism is divided into eight" ("Han Feizi"), of which there are two main schools, one is Mencius, who was born out of Zisi, and the other is preaching through Xunzi, and the other is Xunzi, who was born in Xia, and this is pre-Qin Confucianism.
Confucianism takes the traditional feudal society as the material bearer, while the traditional feudal society takes Confucianism as the spiritual bearer. The collapse of the traditional society resulted in the loss of the authority of the Confucian sage. When China was bombarded by the strong ships of Western powers to open the country, modern times began a large-scale anti-Confucian movement, experiencing the peasant uprising of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the 1911 Revolution of the bourgeois revolution, and the climax of the "May Fourth" new culture sports.
One hundred years ago, people were angry at the country's weakness and criticized the sky. A group of progressive young people who were deeply influenced by Western learning and were anxious to save the country from extinction, led by Hu Shi and Chen Duxiu, launched an "anti-Confucius and non-Confucianism" climax "May Fourth Movement" in modern China. They held a decisive posture of "keep down the Confucian store" and denied Confucianism, which has been the mainstream of Chinese culture for more than two thousand years.
As we all know, after the "May Fourth Movement" has launched, during which will again be " Cultural Revolution " last unharmed, this is full of strong political purpose color "Confucianism law struggle", "Pilinpikong" of the "Cultural Revolution" campaign to make Confucianism has experienced unprecedented bad luck. The noise of hundreds of millions of people chanting "Down with Confucian Lao Er" flooded the land of China, and this made Confucianism and Confucianism and even the thoughts of Confucius and Mencius be cast aside. So far, after the May Fourth Movement, all the doctrines of Confucianism after the Cultural Revolution have been exposed to notoriety and disdain to mention it. Even when some people heard that it was "Confucianism" or "The Way of Confucius and Mencius", they angrily denounced them as "Rotten Confucianism" or "Confucianism".
1. Take Confucius as the forerunner and thought leader;
2. Taking "Zhouyi", "Shangshu", "Book of Songs", "Book of Rites", "Chunqiu" and other books as classics;
3. A tension structure of benevolence and etiquette has been formed in thought;
4. From the inner sage to the outer king, the learning of the outer king's service is achieved through the inner body and mind;
5. Pay special attention to the ethical relationship between people, and apply it to political practice as a guiding principle.