Genghis Khan is a member of the Mongolian begging face tribe, was born in Mobile. The upper reaches of the river (now Kent Province, Mongolia ). The Great Mongolian Khan (reigned from 1206 to August 25, 1227), an outstanding military strategist and politician in world history.
Temujin lost his father in his early years and went to the leader of the Klie Tribe to save his strength. In 1189, he was elected as the Khan of the Mongolian Qiyan Tribe. After a series of wars, he unified the tribes of the Mongolian plateau. 1206 in turn difficult for the Yuan emperor to establish a large Mongolia. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, a thousand households system was implemented, a guard army was established, and the " Dazhasa " was promulgated. During this time, he launched many foreign wars, the occupation of East Jin the vast territory, and the demise of the Western Xia, Liao, and Central Asia Hualazimo, its conquest as far afield as Eastern Europe arrived in the Black Sea waterfront. In 1227, Temujin fell ill and died at the age of sixty-six. Before he died, he set a strategy of "Union Song and Elimination of Gold", and he was buried secretly in the Valley of Qi Nian after his death. After the establishment of the Yuan Dynasty, the posthumous title was given to Emperor Fatian Qiyun Shengwu, and the temple was named Taizu.
Temujin is a very controversial figure, and scholars from various countries at home and abroad have studied and discussed it differently from different angles. His unification war against the Mongolian tribes played an important role in the formation of the Mongolian national community.
(1)Set up a judge
Temujin before the founding, had ordered half brother Belgutei as breaking things Officer (Zhalu red flowers, Jacqui, "remediation outside things"), to judge between fights, theft, pretenses, and other events. When the Great Mongol State was established, the adopted brother Shiji Hutuhu was appointed as the supreme judge (namely the great judge), who presided over the division of households and punishing thieves and frauds, and assigned them to the royal family each one thousand people households, is settled law, is recorded in the green book on (Koko debtor), any person not allowed to change. The chief judge was the chief judicial chief of the central government of Mongolia, so he was called the "national prime minister". Later, the Han people called Shiji Hutuhu (also translated as Hu Tuhu) Prime Minister Hu. Until the early years of Yuan Shizu, the chief judge always maintained the position of the highest administrative officer (prime minister) of the central government. There are many bureaucrats under him, which form the bureaucracy. The kings also decided that the officials were in charge of the people in their headquarters.
Before Temujin unified Mongolia, the Mongolian people couldn't have written laws. Among the Mongols, there are many ancient "your" (you, meaning reason, rule, and reason, usually translated as "style" in the Yuan Dynasty), which contains various social habits and behavior norms formed in the long historical process. Because of the collapse of the social order caused by the wars and mergers of the nobles, Temujin believed that to subdue the clamorous people, it is necessary to "establish order with extremely strict dharma, the wise and the brave as the generals, and the victorious. The clever ones make the camp (Oulu), the stupid and the lowly also give the battle of holding the whip and send them to the livestock", so that people can get their own place and their place. Before and after the founding of the People's Republic of China, he promulgated a series of decrees and precepts. In the twelfth year of Song Jiading (Jin Xingding three years, 1219), at the big gathering held before the Western Expedition Hwa Lazimo, the precepts, decrees, and ancient systems were re-established, and all orders were written on paper scrolls. Compiled as "Dazhasa" ("Zasa Dadian", Zaza has the meaning of "command" and "decree"). Later, whenever the new Great Khan came to the throne, or the dynasties discussed major national affairs, they must first read the "Dazhaci" and act following the relevant provisions. The Yuan people said: "Whenever there is a big banquet, the world ministers are in charge of the book of the golden chamber, and Chen's ancestors' "Dazhasa" must be taken as a lesson."
(1)Start a war
A: Battle of the Thirteen Wings
B: Genghis Khan's Battle for Unifying Mongolia
C: Genghis Khan's three-way gold attack
D: Mongolia's first western expedition
(2)Strengthen the military
The number of troops Temujin possessed, according to the "Secret History of Mongolia", was 95 thousand households, plus 10,000 of the most elite guards. In the process of invading the countries, the army absorbed the surrendered troops and drove the people of the conquered areas into soldiers, which greatly expanded the number of troops. According to the Records of Mongolian Tartar Records, Genghis Khan “raised hundreds of thousands of troops,” and historians of the Western Regions reported that Genghis Khan’s western army reached 600,000. Although this figure is exaggerated, it also reflects the fact that Mongolia's military strength has indeed increased substantially.
The weapons and equipment of the Mongolian army have also been improved in the process of attacking the countries. In addition to the original bows, arrows, knives, and guns, many craftsmen who made sharp weapons, armor shields, siege equipment, artillery, and other weapons were captured from the Central Plains and the Western Regions. "A hundred works of things, so prepare for it", which makes Mongolia's elite cavalry even more powerful. Jin Aizong said: "The northern soldiers often take the golden victor, relying on the horsepower of the north, and the skill of China."
Historically, Temujin was called "deep and rough, using soldiers like gods." Under his command, the Mongolian army created many unique tactics.
Every time they enter troops, the Mongolian army must first send a four-way sentry, one or two hundred miles away, to find out the reality of the left and right, such as a certain road, a city can be attacked, a certain place can be attacked, a certain place can be camped. A certain party has enemy soldiers, and a certain has all the food and grass. The spy is true, and the report is urgently reported to the camp. The garrison is completely lawful, with frontal tactics and separate guards; the front and back of the big tent, the troops, and horses of the various divisions are arranged sparsely so that they can be humbled and can respond to each other.
The Mongolian people originally had no written words, and they only relied on knotting and carving wooden records. Temujin crusade against the war in Naiman, catch a man named Tata unified the Arab Uighur people. He is Naiman sun Khan's handprint official, sun sweats him as the country, Fu, let him grasp the golden seal and Zenitani. Knowing that he knew well in writing, Teemu ordered him to stay by his side, spell Mongolian with the Wuerian alphabet, teach the princes to learn, and create the Mongolian script for the Wuerian. In addition to the Naiman people, the Kray people may also know and use the Ubiquitous script, and they also played a role in the creation of the Mongolian script. Later, many more fearsome people became clerks and teachers of Mongolian kings and nobles. From then on, the Mongolian khanate’s documents, "Huihui characters are used for those who travel to Huihui", "Huihui characters have only 21 letters, and the rest are only made up of radicals.
Although Kublai Khan once asked the national teacher Ba Si Ba to create the "New Mongolian Characters", they were basically not used after the Yuan Dynasty withdrew from the Central Plains, and the "Wuwu Character Book" was reformed at the beginning of the 14th century, and it has been improved and has been used. to date. It is precise with this kind of writing that it is possible to record tables, compile "Dazaza", issue orders, make seals, and compile historical books (such as " Mongolian Secret History "). Since then, Mongolian culture has developed epoch-making.
The Mongolian Khanate established by Temujin and his descendants spanned Europe and Asia. At that time, various religions in the world had almost everything within the scope of his rule. These include the Shamanism that the Mongolians originally believed in, the Buddhism that the Tibetans, the Xixia, and the Han people believed in, the Taoism and Manichaeism of the Jin and Southern Song Dynasty, the Mogul and the Islam ( Islam, Dasha) believed in Western countries, and some in the Mongolian plateau. The tribes and even the Christianity (including Nestorianism, namely Nestorianism; also Rikovin, Romanism) believed in the countries of Qincha and Oros. The Mongolian aristocracy conquered the world, basically adopting a policy of slaughter and plunder, but its religious policy was relatively open. It did not force the conquered to convert to the Mongolian religion but declared freedom of religion, allowed the existence of various sects, and allowed the Mongolians Freely participate in various sects, and basically exempt the believers from taxes and corvee. The implementation of this policy has reduced the resistance of the conquered to a certain extent and has played a significant role in winning and ruling the world of Mongolian nobles.
In short, "in China, because the Mongolians adopted the policy of freedom of belief' and inclusiveness, Islam took the opportunity to develop eastward, and a large number of Muslims moved to China, laying the foundation for the formation of the Muslim nation." After Kublai Khan, the rulers of the Yuan Dynasty mainly advocated Lamaism, and the Tibetan Basiba was revered as the " Great Treasure King " and "Great Yuan Emperor". After the death of each emperor, one must be taken from Tibet as his heir until the end of the Yuan Dynasty. As a result, Buddhism took control of the Tibetan power and introduced its teachings to Mongolia.