Henan Opera, originated in the Central Plains (Kaifeng, Henan). Henan Opera is continuously inherited, reformed, and developed based on Henan Bangs. Together with Peking Opera, Yue Opera, Huangmei Opera, and Ping Opera, it is called China's five major opera types, and one of the largest local opera types in China. Henan Opera has also followed Henan Satellite TV, Henan Henan Theater, Taiwan Henan Opera Troupe, and other performing groups to many countries in the world. Such as: "Australia, Italy, France, Canada, and other countries." It is praised by Westerners as "Oriental Aria", "Chinese Opera" and so on.
Henan opera is famous for its sonorous singing, circumstantial ambiguity, vigorous voice, clear utterance, mellow charm, vividness, flesh and blood, and good at expressing the inner emotions of the characters. It is widely welcomed by people from all walks of life due to its high degree of artistry. It was named Henan Bangzi in the early days because of its musical accompaniment with Zaomu Bangs.
According to statistics from the Ministry of Culture, in addition to Henan Province, there are professional Henan opera troupes in Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, Shandong, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Hebei, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Taiwan.
In November 2019, the General Office of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism organized the inspection and adjustment of the protection units of national intangible cultural heritage representative projects. The Henan Opera protection unit is the Henan Provincial Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection Center. In 2006, Henan Opera was included in the first batch of the national intangible cultural heritage list by the State Council. It is directly managed and incorporated by the Ministry of Culture.
In 1924, Wang Yicheng published an article "General Theory of Henan Opera" in the supplement to "Drama Weekly" of the "Beijing News". The Henan Opera in the article is a collective term for all types of opera in Henan Province.
In the autumn of 1947, the folk press in Luoyang, Kaifeng, Lanzhou, and Xi'an specifically referred to the Henan Bangzi by this title.
At the end of 1947, Li Zhan, an educator of Henan opera, established the first Henan opera performance group "Xinguang Henan Opera Troupe" in Lanzhou.
In 1948, he founded the first school in the history of Henan Opera, the "Private Xinguang Henan Opera School", which was the first organization to use the name "Henan Opera".
In 1950, the Ministry of Culture of the Central-Southern District Military and Political Committee sent a group of Henan Bangzi actors to Wuhan in Zhengzhou to recruit a group of Henan Bangzi actors to form a "mass Henan Bangzi Troupe" headed by Bangzi King Chen Suzhen, Wang Kuiyuan, and Huang Zhongxiang to perform in Wuhan. After the performance, Deng Zihui, vice chairman of the Central South District Military and Political Committee, met with the relevant actors. Speaking of Henan Bangzi, Deng Zihui said: "Henan Bangzi is a nickname, and Henan is the abbreviation of Henan Province. I think it would be more appropriate to take the name Henan Opera." In August 1950, Chen Suzhen and Wang Kuiyuan led the troupe. When touring in Henan, Hebei, and other places, the Henan Bangzi was named Henan Opera. Since then, the term "Henan Opera" has officially replaced Henan Bangs.
Before Qing Dynasty
Henan opera originated in the middle and late Ming dynasties. It was developed after absorbing the singing arts of Beiqu Xiansuo, Qinqiang, and Puzhou Bangzi based on the fashionable Xiaoling (folk songs, minor tunes) prevailing in Henan. With the deepening of research and the confirmation of a large amount of data, especially the relevant personnel in the process of editing " Chinese Opera History Henan Volume ", experts from various fields conducted extensive investigations and demonstrations and concluded that the earliest birthplace of Henan Opera was in the ancient capital of Kaifeng and Conclusions of surrounding counties. The Song Dynasty Chronicle "Tokyo Menghualu" clearly records that there were Sangjiawazi, Biwa, and Ziliwa in Kaifeng, Tokyo in the Northern Song Dynasty. Golan Washhouses were scattered throughout the city, and one goulan shed could accommodate thousands of spectators. At that time, a large-scale drama "Mulian Rescue Mother" had been performed in Kaifeng.
During the Qianlong reign of the Qing Dynasty (1736-1795), Bangzi opera was popular in Henan. According to the records of the inscriptions at the time, the Ming Palace was the place where the prayer banquets of the various classes in the drama were performed. According to the Qing Li Luyuan’s "Qilu Lantern" written in the forty-two year of Qianlong (1777) and the "Qi County Chronicles" of the 53rd year of Qianlong (1788), the Bangzi Opera had prevailed in Kaifeng and Qixian areas at that time. Luo Opera, Juan Opera, and other group performances are called "Bang Luo Juan".
During the Daoguang Reign (1821-1850), "the river embankment broke, the temple collapsed, and the tiles disappeared." It can be seen that the Bangzi Opera had existed in Henan before Daoguang.
After the formation of Henan Opera, due to the difference in phonetic dialects, various distinctive genres were formed in the process of spreading in various places: the singing method centered on Kaifeng is called "Xiangfu Tune"; the singing method centered on Shangqiu is called "Yudong Tune". , Also known as Donglu Diao; the singing method circulating in Luoyang is called "Western Henan Diao", also known as Xifu Diao, Kaoshan Spring; the singing method circulating in the Shahe River Basin in Southeast Henan is called "Shahe Diao", also known as local Bang.
According to the memories of some old artists in the 20th century, when they were studying art around 1912, they heard the master talk about the "Nei Ten" in Henan, namely Xiangfu (now Kaifeng), Qixian, Chen Liu (now Kaifeng), and Wei Clan, Zhongmou, Tongxu, Yifeng, Lanfeng (now merged into Lankao), Fengqiu, Yangwu (now merged into Yuanyang) and "Outer Eight Places" namely Huaiyang, Xihua, Shangshui, Xiangcheng, Shen Qiu, Taikang, Fugou, Luyi. According to artist legend, the earliest teachers of Henan Bangzi were Jiangmen and Xiamen. Jiangmen was in Zhuxian Town, south of Kaifeng City, and Xumen was in Qingheji Village in Fengqiu County. They both held courses. The oldest three classes in Kaifeng, namely Yicheng class, Gongyi class, and Hongxing class, and Tianxing class of Qingheji, are said to have gone through the Ming and Qing dynasties.
In the fifth year of the Republic of China (February 15, 1916), the "Hesheng Daily" published: "The Yicheng Class in the province was originally organized by the Kaifeng County Chief Minzhuang in Jianqing Office. Over the years, Liyuan children have been singing everywhere. , Quite famous."
At the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, the Tianxing Class, which used to perform in Kaifeng, was originally an academic class run by Fengqiu. It has a relatively long history. Many famous Henan opera actors came from this class. Well-known actors Li Jianyun, Yan Caiyun, Lin Baiyun, Shi Qianyun, and Jia Biyun are also called the five great heroes. Other major actors sometimes include Dengke, Zhang Zhilin, Nie Erni, Kong Xianyu, Li Yuxian, Zhang Tinghua, Li Fukui, etc.
Republic of China
After the Revolution of 1911, Henan Clappers entered more cities to perform. The more famous tea houses in Kaifeng, such as Zhixiang Tea House, Puqing Tea House, Chenghuai Tea House, Qing Tea House, Donghuo Temple Tea House, and Tongle Tea House, were all vying for invitations. Hire Henan sub-class club, Yicheng class, Tianxing class, public meeting class, public prosperous class to participate in the performance. After Henan opera entered the tea house to sing, it formed a competitive situation with the Erhuang (Peking Opera) who had already entered the tea house.
In the fifth year of the Republic of China (December 29, 1916), the "Songyue Daily" published: "Biansheng Huang Opera has repeatedly performed, but the Bang Opera is quite lasting." In addition to Kaifeng, the provincial capital, tea houses and theaters in Zhengzhou, Luoyang, Xinyang, Shangqiu and other places have also appeared in Henan Bangzi, and they have been warmly welcomed by the local people, and there is endless applause.
From the late 1820s to the early 1930s, Xiangguo Temple in Kaifeng successively established four theaters: Yong'an, Tongle, Yongle, and Guomin. The Henan opera performers gathered in Kaifeng and were very popular.
In the fifteenth year of the Republic of China (1926), the Yicheng class established the Yongan stage in the Huoshen Temple of Xiangguo Temple in Kaifeng. The organization and management of the stage are divided into front, back, and front desks. They are mainly responsible for managing various chores in the theater, such as ticket sales, receiving audiences, and supplying tea; the backstage is mainly responsible for performance matters, such as determining the performance, assigning roles, and suitcases. Props and other aspects of work.
In the 16th year of the Republic of China (1927), Feng Yuxiang was in charge of Henan. The Henan Provincial Department of Education established Henan Recreation Training Class in Kaifeng, reviewed the repertoire, and educate hundreds of actors on "high-level education" and "serving the society". Famous artists called it "the first voice of Henan Bang Opera reform."
In the 19th year of the Republic of China (1930), the five major schools of Henan Opera competed in Kaifeng, forming a great fusion of singing, especially the participation of intellectual reformers, which enabled Henan Opera to absorb the strengths of various schools to learn from each other and create a period of prosperity for Henan Opera. After this fusion, the tune of Henan Opera immediately affected all regions. This also laid a solid foundation for the great development of Henan Opera throughout the country in 1950.
In the 23rd year of the Republic of China (1934), Fan Cutting founded the Yusheng Theater in Kaifeng.
In twenty-four years (1935), Fan Cui Ting Henan Province Department of Education Promotion Department director in Kaifeng formation of Henan sound theater Society of drama department white, words, tone, workmanship, makeup, wardrobe reform, the development of opera had a profound influence. Due to the intervention of administrative forces, the reform of drama has formed a certain momentum; embedded in the thinking of the times, it has improved the literary taste of repertoire and lyricism, brought into play the comprehensive advantages of singing and dancing, reformed old music, and merged singing tunes. , Created a new tune and new rhyme. Fan Cutting also changed the Tongle Theater into the Yusheng Theater and invited the Queen of Henan Opera Chen Suzhen and Zhao Yiting to form a powerful performance team to sell tickets at the Yusheng Theater. The adapted Henan Opera was very popular. "Henan Minbao" published in the 24th year of the Republic of China (May 4, 1935) contained: "Every night there is no gap."
In the twenty-sixth year of the Republic of China (May 1937), Fan Cutting accompanied Chen Suzhen from Kaifeng to Beiping to learn opera. In the twenty-sixth year of the Republic of China (July 1937), the Lugou Bridge Incident broke out. Fan Cutting and Chen Suzhen left for Henan, opening the scene of the first anti-Japanese fundraising performance in Henan's art circles. The benefit performance went to Shangqiu and was renamed the Lion Roar Troupe, and compiled anti-Japanese repertoires such as "Clearing the Blood", "The Wife's Arrow", and "The Return of the Enemy". By propagating the anti-Japanese war, fundraising performances, and supporting anti-Japanese fighters, it is known as a model of zealous saving the country.
In the 27th year of the Republic of China (1938), when Kaifeng fell, the Kuomintang army blasted the Yellow River’s Huayuankou, causing the Yellow River to overflow and the people to be displaced. Many Henan opera groups entered Xi'an. In the 29th year of the Republic of China (1940), the Lion Roar Troupe moved to Xi'an.
In the thirty-seventh year of the Republic of China (1948), Chang Xiangyu founded the Xiangyu Drama Club in Xi'an.
In the thirty-seventh year of the Republic of China (1948), Cui Lantian founded the Language Opera Society in Xi'an, and the Henan Disaster Children Drama Society founded by Sun Laozi. Xi'an became an important position for Henan Opera performances. Some actors entered Anhui for their first performances, such as Mao Lanhua, Ma Jinfeng, Yan Lipin, and so on. During the Anti-Japanese War, actors of various genres flowed everywhere to make a living. They broke their opinions and performed in groups with each other, which enabled the various schools of Henan Opera to have more exchanges.
In the 38th year of the Republic of China (April 24, 1949), the Chinese People's Liberation Army marched into Nanjing. The Chinese army general Huang Jie led nearly 40,000 soldiers to Phu Quoc Island in Vietnam. Most of these soldiers were from the Soviet, Shandong, Anhui, and Henan provinces. , There is an officer in the army, Li Jiutao, whose wife Zhang Xiuyun was originally a red horn singing Henan opera. Everyone called on Zhang Xiuyun to set up a troupe (later named "Zhongzhou Henan Opera Troupe") to perform specifically for the officers and soldiers to comfort the nostalgia.
After the founding of the People's Republic of China, professional Henan opera performance groups were established one after another in the mainland, and a large number of new arrangements and plays appeared. Henan Bangzi is officially named "Henan Opera". The state has produced a large number of stage art documentary films and TV films and has preserved and recorded the performing arts of many artists and troupes.
The Chinese Kuomintang put forward the idea of "promoting the culture of the Central Plains" to express its cultural legitimacy. As a typical representative of the Central Plains culture, Henan Opera has been vigorously promoted in Taiwan. In 1950, the Army's political, war, cultural and industrial system released Taiwan's first Henan Opera performance in Fengshan, Kaohsiung. Lee Teng-hui and Chen Shui-bian vigorously promoted local culture during Taiwan's ruling period, and Taiwan's Henan opera environment was affected. After Ma Ying-jeou came to power, with the warming of cross-strait relations, cultural exchanges between Henan and Taiwan have continued to deepen, and the influence of Henan Opera in Taiwan has been further demonstrated. The Taiwan Henan Opera Troupe is a state-level public Henan Opera performing group affiliated to the National Taiwan Traditional Arts General Office, the cultural department of Taiwan.
In the mid-1850s, many provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions across the country established professional Henan Opera performance groups, making Henan Opera one of the most popular opera types in China. Director Yang Lanchun and composer Wang Jixiao opened up a path of modern Henan opera and created a counter-tune singing method represented by "Chaoyanggou", which is called the "modern opera genre" and is an opera in Henan opera. "Chaoyanggou" has become a classic that cannot be copied. However, the resulting large number of modern Henan operas also worries many people in the industry and outsiders. Because of the alienation and loss of fine traditional singing in modern dramas, as well as the serious lack of aesthetics in material selection, and the artistry of lyrics design, the elegance, and rhyme of Henan opera cannot be used in modern Henan opera. This has been reflected in the drama, resulting in a serious decline in the taste and quality of Henan opera, and it has also caused a situation in which 10,000 people are one voice.
In 1951, the Taiwan Air Force established the amateur Henan Opera Troupe (Dapeng Henan Opera Team) with Mao Lanhua as its core. The amateur Henan Opera Troupe opened the first Henan Opera class in Taiwan’s history: the student class of the Taiwan Air Force Amateur Henan Opera Troupe (Dapeng Henan Opera Team Student Class), which enrolled 8 students in the first period, 4 students in the second period, and students in the third period. Discontinued after 8 people. The Taiwan Army has the Huanglong Henan Opera Team, the Tiger Ben Henan Opera Team, and the Jaguar Henan Opera Team.
In 1953, Huang Jie's troops moved to Taiwan, designated as the Taiwan Marines, based in Kaohsiung. After moving to Taiwan, the "Zhongzhou Henan Opera Troupe" was reorganized into the "Pegasus Henan Opera Troupe" with the care of Zhou Yuhuan and his wife at the time of the Marine Corps and the support of the then Chief of Staff Yu Haozhang. One day in early April of the same year, Chiang Kai-shek and his wife, Song Meiling, watched a Henan opera in the Jieshou Hall of Yangmingshan Revolutionary Practice Research Institute. During the performance, Chiang Kai-shek repeatedly claimed that he was good. After the curtain call, he took off his military hat and frequently appeared on stage. Beckon and tell the government officials present that Henan Opera is the most educated type of opera.
In March 1956, Henan Yu Theater was established. With the mission of inheriting and carrying forward the excellent traditions of Chinese opera art, and systematically and systematically cultivating new forces of opera art, the Henan Opera School (now Zhongyuan The College of Culture and Art) was formally established; on September 8 of the same year, the Henan Provincial Bureau of Culture proposed to excavate and sort out traditional repertoires throughout the province, and decided to hold the first Henan Opera Observation and Performance Conference at the end of the year. At the observatory held in December, a total of 23 types of operas participated in the performance, and the Henan opera repertoire accounted for almost half of the performance.
In 1957, with the continuous expansion of the anti-rightist struggle, a group of Henan opera workers across the country, such as Chen Suzhen and Yan Lipin, were labeled as rightists and were criticized. In 1962, the Lu Guangyu Opera Team was consolidated and established. The Taiwan Marine Corps has the Pegasus Henan Opera Troupe; the Joint Logistics has the Four or Four Henan Opera Troupes.
A total of 9 students were trained before the suspension.
The third Henan Opera class in Taiwan is the student class of the Taiwan Army Lu Guangyu Opera Team that was suspended before the graduates were trained (students transferred to the Pegasus Henan Opera Team).
From 1940 to 1960, Henan opera began to spread across the country. In the 1940s, it moved west to Shaanxi, Shanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and other places, and in the 1950s it moved to Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou, Taiwan, and other places in the south, and north to Tianjin. , Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, and other places, spread to more than 20 provinces across the country.
In 1965, when the Pegasus Henan Opera Team was about to be disassembled, Jiang Jingguo in Kaohsiung listened to the opinions of the Navy and Marine Corps officers and ordered the retention of the Pegasus Henan Opera Team. Jiang Jingguo also tried to solve the funding problem of the Henan Opera Team. Since 1965, the political warfare system of the Taiwan military began to disband the Henan opera teams of various services one by one.
In 1966, the Taiwan Air Force Amateur Henan Opera Troupe was disbanded in Pingtung (the Joint Logistics Fourth and Fourth Henan Opera Troupe had already been separated).
During the Cultural Revolution
In 1966, in the slogan of the Cultural Revolution "break the four olds", Henan Opera, like other opera troupes, had a large number of traditional costumes, props, and opera materials that were regarded as feudal remnants and burned. Many Henan opera actors have also been criticized. For example, Chang Xiangyu was deprived of the right to perform. The Henan Daily criticized her and called her a "big play hegemon". At the same time, some Henan opera troupes, including Henan Yu Theater, were canceled or merged. Under the situation of the country’s vigorous popularization of model operas, Henan opera workers have done a lot of work for transplanting model operas of Henan opera, and some actors who are not suitable for model operas have been forced to Diverted.
On April 2, 1969, at the evening party of the Tenth National Congress of the Chinese Kuomintang, Chiang Kai-shek pointed out that he would watch Henan Opera, and after watching the new historical drama "Yang Jinhua", he praised Henan Opera for its significance in teaching loyalty and filial piety. During the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1972, apart from transplanting model dramas, Henan Opera had almost no newly created plays.
In 1971, the Lu Guangyu opera team was disbanded. Only in 1965 was the then head of Taiwan’s national defense department Jiang Jingguo ordered special care (the then deputy captain Zhang Xiuyun leaped to fight against Xiao Jiang. After Xiao Jiang set the tone, Zhang retired in 1968) The Pegasus Henan Opera team stayed.
In 1973, Taiwan's last private Henan opera troupe: Fenglin Henan Opera Troupe disbanded (previously, a private Jieyin Henan Opera Troupe had been disbanded). From then on, there was only one Henan Opera Troupe, a publicly run Pegasus Henan Opera Troupe.
In 1974, the Henan Opera film "Qin Liangyu" produced by a Chinese film studio was presented to Chiang Kai-shek, which was highly appreciated and ordered to be viewed by the three armies.
Influenced by his father, Jiang Jingguo also has a special liking for Henan opera. During his tenure as the vice president of the administrative department in Taiwan, he watched many Henan operas starring Ms. Wang Hailing and recommended them to Yan Jiagan and He Yangqin.
In 1978, President Chiang Ching-Kuo visited the performance of the 14th Gold Award for Arts and Culture of the Taiwan Army and awarded NT$40,000 to the Pegasus Henan Opera Team.
After the Cultural Revolution, the traditional Henan opera repertoire came back to the stage. From the late 1970s to the 1980s, a new kind of thought surged in the creation of Henan opera. Along with the footsteps of "scar literature", some refreshing new ones appeared in Henan opera. works.
In 1980, the "Reporting Performance of Henan Opera Schools" was held, and the major Henan Opera genres gradually formed. Many modern dramas and newly written historical dramas describing real-life appeared. This performance is of great significance. It established Chen and Chen in terms of art and influence. Chang, Cui, Ma, Yan Wu Da Dan Jiao and Tang Xicheng Li Sizhong and other schools of sanctity.
By 1983, the shackles of creation during the Cultural Revolution had been broken, and the new repertoire of Henan opera had new explorations and experiments in all aspects from the content to the form of expression, from artistic practice to theoretical research.
Reform and Opening
In 1990, Pegasus was invited to perform in the United States, Germany, Austria, Italy, Britain, and other countries successively, and stood on the international stage with the art of Henan opera.
In July 1990, a group of 40 people from the Taipei Henan Opera Improvement Association went to Pingdingshan City, Henan Province to perform, opening the curtain of cross-strait Henan Opera exchanges. Since then, Taiwanese Henan opera actors have been invited to perform in the mainland many times. This period is called the "one-way exchange period."
In 1993, the exchange of Henan opera between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait changed from one-way exchanges to two-way exchanges.
In 1994, the program "Liyuanchun" launched by Henan TV was presented to the audience in the form of a ring competition, which was widely praised. The column group of "Pear Garden Spring" performed in mainland China, Taiwan, and other places, which further expanded the influence of Henan Opera.
In 1996, the Taiwanese military decided not to operate the opera team. On January 1, the Pegasus Henan Opera Team was moved from the Marine Corps of the Taiwan Region to the Education Department of the Taiwan Region and changed to the Henan Opera Team of the National Guoguang Opera Troupe. It is now state-owned. Taiwan Henan Opera Troupe.
In April 1998, 40 people from Zhengzhou Henan Opera Troupe led by national first-class actor Hu Meiling went to Taiwan for the first time as a whole group.
In 2000, the Taiwan Henan Opera Troupe created a cross-cultural repertoire of Henan Opera with the famous Italian opera "Princess Turandot" for the first time, and the performance caused an unprecedented sensation.
After 2001, the exchange of Henan opera between the two sides of the strait entered a period of cooperation. Henan artists went to Taiwan to rehearse a large number of new Henan Opera repertoires.
On March 6, 2008, Taiwan Henan Opera Troupe became independent from Guoguang Opera Troupe and became its counterpart organization.
In 2009, Shakespeare's famous play "The Merchant of Venice" was re-transplanted into the Henan Opera version of "Restriction". These two new cross-cultural works opened a new path for the development of Henan Opera's modernization and internationalization in Taiwan, and the performance was highly praised.
From September 18th to September 20th, 2010, a group of 10 people from the Henan Provincial Department of Culture went to Singapore to participate in the 2010 Singapore Chinese Cultural Festival. Together with the Taiwan Henan Opera Troupe and the Singapore Academy of Opera, the "Asian Henan Opera Forum" was held, which became the development of Henan Opera. The first Henan Opera Forum was held across the country in history.
In 2011, the Henan Opera Festival, the Chinese Henan Opera Art Festival co-sponsored by the Ministry of Culture, Henan Provincial Department of Culture, Zhengzhou Municipal Government, and China Henan Opera Culture Promotion Association. Henan and Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Anhui, Hubei, Jiangsu, Taiwan, etc. Henan opera troupes from many provinces (regions) participated in the performance. The opening ceremony was held at the Grand Theatre of Henan Art Center. Two masters, Ma Jinfeng of Luoyang Peony, and Empress Dowager Zhang Xiuyun of Taiwan Henan Opera won the "Henan Opera Lifetime Achievement Award" at the Second China Henan Opera Festival.
After the establishment of the Ministry of Culture of Taiwan on May 20, 2012, the Taiwan Henan Opera Troupe was subordinate to the National Center for Traditional Arts of the Ministry of Culture of Taiwan. The performance style of the Taiwan Henan Opera Troupe is marked by "combining modernization and localization, showing inclusiveness and innovation", emphasizing the localization of Henan Opera and deeply integrating the connotation of Taiwan. At the same time, the concept of cross-cultural or cross-border creation has become a trend of creation in Taiwan in the 21st century.
On September 11, 2015, the second troupe of Henan Yu Theatre, a new large-scale patriotic Henan opera "Su Wu Shepherd", starring Li Shujian, vice chairman of the Chinese Theatre Association and Dean of Henan Yu Theatre, appeared on the "Silk Road" International Art Festival in Xi'an.
On October 2, 2019, Henan Opera participated in the 2019 Chinese Opera Culture Week.