In the Neolithic period from 6,700 to more than 7,000 years ago, the ancestors may have been able to burn pottery xuns and dig bone whistles. ( The bone flute at the Jiahu site in Wuyang County, Henan Province dates back to about 8000 years ago and is the oldest wind instrument in the world. One of the seven-hole bone flutes is very well preserved. Experts have conducted experiments and found that it can still be used The bone flute played music and produced a seven-tone scale. But in ancient China, only the pentatonic scale was basically used .) These primitive musical instruments undoubtedly tell people that humans at that time already had the aesthetic ability for music.
The ancient music culture has the characteristics of combining songs, dances, and music according to ancient documents. The so-called "three people fucking oxtails and throwing enough to sing and dance" in the Ge Tian clan is the best explanation. At that time, the content that people sang, such as "respect for nature", "five the five grains", and "the ultimate of total animals and beasts" reflected the ancestors' understanding of agriculture, animal husbandry, and the laws of nature and nature. This primitive music and dances that combine song, dance, and music are also connected with the totem worship of primitive clans. For example, the Huangdi clan once used the cloud as a totem, and his music and dance were called "Cloud Gate". Regarding the original song form, you can see the "Hou Ren Song" written by the daughter of Tu Shan in "Lü Shi Chun Qiu". The lyrics of this song are only "waiting for people", and only the word "waiting for people" has real meaning. This is the budding of music, a language that has not been transformed.
According to historical records, Fuxi and Shennong worked as pianos. Shennong went to Fuxi far away, and Fuxi used it as a piano player. It was probably created by the grassroots and was not perfected. When it was passed to Shennong, Shennong added research, so the system of piano and player began to become like that of later generations. Later generations look back at its originality and cannot be called Fuxi alone, nor can it be called Shennong alone. People who create and improve are called "Zuo" Yan. There are also records such as Leng Lun's melody, singing and dancing, Yang Yan's music score, Darong's music, Huangdi's sheng, Kui as a drum, and Ling Lun and Rong Jiang casting bells.
The ancient "poems" of the Han nationality are irrelevant, that is, literature and music are closely related. The poems in the earliest surviving Chinese poetry collection "The Book of Songs" were all equipped with tunes and were sung orally for the people. This tradition has continued. For example, the official poetry collection of the Han Dynasty was called "Han Yuefu", and Tang poetry and Song Ci could also be sung at that time. Even today, there are pop musicians who compose and sing for ancient poems, such as Su Shi's " Shui Tiao Ge Tou " describing the Mid-Autumn Festival.
In ancient times, the Han people treated musicians contemptuously, unlike painters, because Chinese painting and calligraphy were closely related, and painters belonged to the class of literati and officials. During the Song Dynasty, they could even "examine officials by painting" (in fact, because of Song Huizong's personal passion for painting). Musicians have a low status and are just "actors" for the entertainment of the nobles. Li Guinean, a famous singer in the Tang Dynasty, also had no political status. He was also praised because he often appeared in Tang poetry.
The ancient literati class of the Han nationality believed that a well-trained person should be proficient in "qin, chess, calligraphy, and calligraphy ". The so-called "qin" is the guqin that has been passed down to this day. However, the guqin is limited to be enjoyed alone, and cannot be performed to the public. Guqin has a low volume and is the only instrument with a higher status.
Summary: The development of ancient Chinese music theory was slow, and its status was not high in the "official history", and there was no more written information left. But music, like literature, was a required course for the ancient intellectuals (see "Six Arts" for details ), and undoubtedly played an important role in the daily life of ancient Chinese people; folks are full of colorful melodies.
Ancient music theory
The ancient music of the Han nationality belongs to the pentatonic system, and the five levels on the pentatonic scale are called " five tones ", namely Gong (do), Shang (re), Jiao (mi), Zheng (sol), and Yu (la). The more famous ancient Chinese music includes " Guangling San ", " High Mountain and Flowing Water ", " Three Lanes of Plum Blossoms " and so on.
In ancient times, the "gold", "stone", "silk" and "bamboo" were used to refer to different musical instruments, which were classified according to different materials and conditions at that time, and represented as follows:
(1)Gold: an instrument made of metal
Representative musical instruments: bell, which was prosperous in spring and autumn and Warring States period until Qin and Han Dynasties, was mostly bronze. In ancient times, the bell was not only an instrument but also a ritual instrument for status and power symbols. It is a traditional percussion instrument, and there are chimes, Chuyu, and hook, which are basically the deformation of the clock.
(2)Stone: an instrument made of stone
Representative instrument: exhausted, is the oldest stone percussion instrument and ritual instrument in Chinese history. It is simple and exquisite in shape. The Qing has a long history. In ancient matriarchal clan society, Qing was once known as stone and Ming ball. At that time, people lived on fishing and hunting, and after working, they hit rocks and dressed up as various beasts to dance and entertain. The percussive stones were gradually transformed into the later percussion instruments - the outgrowth.
(3)Silk: finger string instrument
Silk instruments are divided into two types: elastic string and pulling string. The musical instruments of playing string are: there are Qin, Ser, and Zheng.
(4)Qin, also known as Yao Qin, jade Qin, commonly known as guqin, a kind of ancient instrument with no quality of seven strings.
(5)And there were twenty-five strings, sure. The earliest one is 50 strings, which are traditional Chinese musical instruments. They are all instruments with silk strings on the surface. China is the first country in the world to raise silkworms and make silk. Silk instruments are also the most representative of traditional instruments in China.
(6)String type represents musical instrument: building, like a piano, with 13 strings and columns under the strings. When playing, the left-hand presses one end of the string, and the right-hand holds the bamboo ruler to strike the string to pronounce. Originated in the Chu, its voice was very sad and intense, which was widely spread in the pre-Qin Dynasty.
(7)Bamboo: an instrument of finger pipe
Representative instrument: Xiao, the flute here refers to the flute. The flute is one of the oldest and primitive instruments in the world. It is to arrange the bamboo pipes with different lengths in the order of length and make up the flute with ropes and bamboo grate. So it used to be called "mixed". Other representative instruments include flute, Sheng, Zheng, etc.
In fact, the instruments were classified according to the materials of musical instruments. Generally, they were divided into eight categories: gold, stone, soil, leather, silk, wood, Pao, and bamboo. They were pure Han musical instruments. Gold, stone, silk, and bamboo were only four representative ones. When the music played by these instruments flowed out, you can realize that there is no way to say that they can not be said and can not be done Moved, this is the beauty of Chinese classical music.
After the Han and Tang dynasties, China had frequent exchanges with foreign countries through the Western Regions. In the West, music and musical instruments from the Islamic world and India flowed in. During the Han and Tang Dynasties, the rulers pursued an open policy and dared to absorb foreign cultures from foreign instruments. A large number of Chinese music, such as Zhuozhen and Huqin, have been adopted by Chinese music and have been improved and developed by the Chinese, gradually replacing the original Chinese musical instruments. Except for the guqin, which has always been favored by literati, it has been popularized by musical instruments. Almost all the musical instruments officially performed in the "folk music" public are foreign. Musicians are committed to discovering and improving ancient musical instruments, such as Xun, Zheng, and panpipes to regain their glory, but they are rarely included in the ensemble repertoire of ethnic bands.
Xia and Shang era
According to the literature, the Xia and Shang dynasties were the early days of slavery society. From the records of classical literature, the music and dance at this time have gradually deviated from the characteristics shared by the primitive clan music and dance, and they are more occupied by the higher classes. From the content point of view, they gradually departed from the primitive totem worship and turned into an ode to the man who conquered nature. For example, Xia Yu controlled the water and benefited the people, so the music and dance " Da Xia " praising Xia Yu appeared. Xia Jie had no way, and Shang Tang defeated him, so there was a music and dance "Da Yi" praising Shang Tang to defeat Jie. Witchcraft prevailed in the Shang Dynasty, so witches (witches) and cohorts (witches) appeared. They were raised by slave owners and danced and sang during sacrifices. They were the first people who took music as their profession. Slave owners used music and dance to worship the emperor and ancestors, and at the same time used music and dance to indulge their own enjoyment. After their deaths, they were to be sacrificed as musicians. This cruel martyrdom system on the one hand exposed the cruel rule of slave owners, and objectively reflected the progress of productivity compared with the primitive times, thus giving music culture a rapid development. condition. According to historical records, in the Xia Dynasty, there were crocodile skin-covered drums. In the Shang dynasty, wooden drums with python skin and double-bird gluttonous bronze drums, as well as well-made stone chimes born out of stone birch plows, have been discovered. As far as the influence of the Bronze Age is reached, the Shang Dynasty also appeared chimes and chime musical instruments, most of which were in groups of three. The emergence of various percussion instruments reflects the characteristics of the development of percussion instruments in the history of musical instruments. Tao Xun, a body-ming instrument that began in more than 5,000 BC, has developed from a single-tone hole and a second-tone hole to a five-tone hole. It can emit twelve semitones. Sound column. According to Tao Xun's pronunciation inference, Chinese folk music foundation thinking of the pentatonic scale, in the Neolithic late, and seven for sound, at least in business, it has emerged when Yin.
Western Zhou Dynasty, Eastern Zhou Dynasty
The Western Zhou Dynasty was the mature period of Chinese slavery, and the Eastern Zhou Dynasty slavery society went from prosperity to decline, and the historical period of the monarch's rule increasing. In the Western Zhou Dynasty, the court first established a complete system of ritual and music. Officials of different statuses in banquet entertainment stipulate different statuses and organizations of dance teams. Summary judgments before the ancient epic nature of music and dance, you can see the so-called "six generations of music and dance", that "when the Yellow Emperor Cloud Gate," "when Yao salty pool ", "when Shun Shao," Yu when the " big summer ", " Da Xi " in Shang Dynasty, " Da Wu " in Zhou Dynasty. In the Zhou Dynasty, there was also a system of collecting folk songs to observe the customs and sentiments of the people. Based on this, a large number of folk songs were retained, and after Confucius's deletion in the Spring and Autumn Period, China's first collection of poetry- " The Book of Songs " was formed. It contains a total of 305 poems about music from the beginning of the Western Zhou Dynasty to the middle of the Spring and Autumn Period. The best part of "The Book of Songs " is "wind". They are popular in Henan Province as the center, including the fifteenth folk songs in nearby provinces. Also, there are several genres such as " Daya " and " Xiaoya " created by literati, as well as the epic sacrificial song "Ode". Based on the analysis of the characters handed down, the songs in the " Book of Songs " can be summarized into ten musical structures. As the climax at the end of the song, there has been a special name "Chaos". Before and after the "Book of Songs" was written, the famous patriotic poet Qu Yuan compiled the " Nine Songs " based on the sacrificial songs of the Chu, which has strong characteristics of Chu culture. So far, two works with different musical styles complement each other from north to south.
Folk music life in the Zhou Dynasty involved more than a dozen aspects of social life and was very active. The story of Zhong Ziqi's bosom friend began at this time as the legendary Boya played the piano. This reflects the improvement of performance technique, composition technique, and people's appreciation level. In the guqin performance, the violinist also summed up the psychological feeling of "getting to the heart, then to the instrument". According to records, the singing of the famous singer Qin Qing can "vibrate the forest and restrain the flying clouds." There is also a folk singer-songwriter Han E, after the song, "Yuyin Rao Liang, for three days". These are high achievements in vocal technology.
The achievement of the highly developed music culture of the Zhou Dynasty can also be an important symbol of the ancient musical instruments in the tomb of Marquis Yi of the Warring States Period unearthed in Suixian, Hubei in 1978. This underground music treasure house comparable to the Egyptian pyramids provides the model of the court ritual music system at that time. The eight kinds of 124 musical instruments unearthed here are classified according to the Zhou Dynasty’s "eight-tone" musical instrument classification (gold, stone, There are almost all kinds of musical instruments (silk, bamboo, gooseberry, soil, leather, wood). The 64 most important chime instruments are arranged in three levels: upper, middle, and lower, with a total weight of more than 5,000 kilograms and a total range of up to five octaves. Because this set of chimes has the characteristics of two tones in a bell of Shang and Zhou Dynasties, the twelve semitones in the central part are all available, which can be used to rotate the palace, which confirms the reliability of the records of the palace in the pre-Qin period. There are also inscriptions on the tomb bells and chime instruments of the tomb of Marquis Yi Zeng. The content is the theory of music and temperament among the vassal states, reflecting the high achievement of music temperament in the Zhou Dynasty. In the Zhou Dynasty, the theory of the Twelve Laws has been established. The names of pentatonic scales (Gong, Shang, Jiao, Zheng, Yu) have also been established. At this time, people already know that the palace tone is the dominant tone in the pentatonic or seven tone scale, and the change of the palace tone position is called Xuan Gong so that the effect of modulation can be achieved. The outstanding achievements in law can be found in the "three-point profit and loss method" recorded in the "Guanzi-Diyuan Chapter". Based on the chord length of the palace tone, add one third (iii) to get the pure fourth syllable below the palace tone; subtract one-third of the chord length of the palace tone (loss one) to get the syllable The upper pure fifth quotient; continue to calculate the chord length of each tone of the pentatonic scale. According to this method, the chord length of twelve semitones (twelve temperaments) in a full octave is calculated, which constitutes the "three-point profit and loss rule". This kind of temperament is based on the natural fifth-degree intergrowth. The sound produced by each intergrowth is slightly higher than the fifth degree of the twelve equal temperaments so that the twelve times of intergrowth cannot get the higher octave of the original rhythm The sound, causing the so-called "Yellow Bell cannot be restored", causing inconvenience to the rotation of Xuan Gong. But this kind of temperament that fully reflects the beauty of monophonic music has continued to this day.
Qin and Han times
"You" began to appear in the Qin and Han Dynasties. It inherited the Zhou Dynasty's system of collecting styles, collecting, organizing, and changing folk music, and eventually a large number of musicians performed at banquets, rites, and ceremonies. These lyrics used for singing are called Yuefu poems. You were later extended to refer to all kinds of lyrics that are either entertaining or not. Even some operas and instrumental music are also called Yuefu.
The main song form in the Han Dynasty is Xianghe Ge. From the initial "singing by one person, harmony among three people", it gradually developed into a "Xiang dau" accompanied by silk and bamboo instruments and has a "yan-trend-chaotic" structure. Songs and dances of the time have an important influence. Percussion music arose in the Northwest Frontier County during the Han Dynasty. It uses wind instruments and percussion instruments of different arrangements to form various forms of percussion, such as horizontal blow, riding blow, yellow door blow, and so on. They are played immediately or on the move and are used for military music etiquette, court banquets, and folk entertainment. Folk wind and percussion music still surviving today should have the legacy of the Han Dynasty preaching. In the Han dynasty, " bai xi " also appeared, which was a show that combined singing and dancing, acrobatics, and horns (sumo). The achievement of the Han dynasty law is that Jingfang divided the octave into the sixty law by the method of three points of profit and loss. Although this theory is meaningless in music practice, it embodies the subtlety of legal thinking. In theory, the effect of the fifty-three equal law has been achieved.
Three Kingdoms, Jin Dynasty, Southern and Northern Dynasties
The phase and the song developed Qingshang music in Cao Wei importance of setting clear business department. The wars at the turn of the Jin Dynasty combined Qing Shang Music with Southern Wu Ge and Western Music. It has become an important music genre spreading throughout the country.
At this time, the guqin, a representative instrument of traditional music culture, has matured. This is mainly manifested as: in the Han Dynasty, there has been a guqin monograph " Qin Cao " with the title of Qin Song. One of the seven sages of the bamboo forest during the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the famous qin master Ji Kang has a record of "The Jade of Zhongshan in Huiyi " in his book "Qin Fu". This shows that people at that time already knew the generation of emblem overtones (13 emblems) on the guqin. At that time, a large number of literati and piano artists appeared one after another, such as Ji Kang, Ruan Ji, etc., " Guangling San " ("Nie Zheng Assassinated King of Qin"), "Yi Lan Cao", "Liquor Madness" and other famous songs came out.
Important achievements in the study of law in this period included the Jin Dynasty Xun Hao's finding of the "nozzle correction number" for wind instruments. Southern Song EDWARD on the third of the profit and loss method with arithmetic superposition approach, founded very close to equal temperament new law. His efforts initially solved the problem that Huang Zhong could not restore the three-point profit and loss rule.
Sui and Tang era
During the Sui and Tang dynasties, the regime was unified, especially in the Tang dynasty, with stable politics and a prosperous economy. The rulers pursued an open policy and continuously absorbed other cultures. Also, the foundation of music culture that had been bred since the Wei and Jin dynasties was finally sprouted. The main sign is the peak of the all-around development of music art.
The music enjoyed at the palace feast of the Tang Dynasty is called " Yan Yue ". Qibla music and Jiubu music in the Sui and Tang dynasties belonged to Yanyue. They are the folk music of China and some foreign countries, mainly Qing Shang Music (Han), Xiliang Music (Han), Gaochang (now Turpan ) Music, Qiuci (now Kuqa ) Music, Kangguo (now Uzbek Samar) Rare ) music, Anguo (now Uzbek Bukhara ) music, Tianzhu (now India) music, Goryeo (now North Korea) music, etc.
Langue is also divided into Zabu Ji and Libu Ji. According to Bai Juyi 's poem " Libu Ji ", the performance of Zabu Ji is higher than that of Libu Ji. The popular song and dance of the Tang Dynasty is a unique and wonderful work in Yan music. It inherits the tradition of Xianghe Daqu, blends the essence of nine parts of music, and forms a structure of scatter - middle sequence or beat sequence -broken or danced all over. There are 46 names of Tang Daqu recorded in "Jiaofanglu". Among them, " Neon Dress and Feather Dance " was written by the famous emperor musician Tang Xuanzong, and it has an elegant style of French music, which is praised by the world. The famous poet Bai Juyi wrote a vivid poem " Dancing Song of Neon Clothes and Feather Clothes " describing the performance of the Daqu.
In the Tang Dynasty band, the pipa is one of the main musical instruments. It is almost the same as today's pipa. Fujian Nanqu and Japanese pipa still retain some characteristics of Tang pipa in form and performance.
Affected by Qiuci's music theory, the music theory of 84 tones and 28 tones of Yanyue appeared in the Tang Dynasty. In the Tang Dynasty, Cao Rou also created the Guqin notation method of subtracting characters, which has been used until modern times.
At the end of the Tang Dynasty, a kind of song and dance drama with story plot, characters and makeup performances, singing and dancing, and accompaniment by singing and orchestra was also popular. Da Mian, Ta Yao Niang, Turning the Head, Joining the Army, etc. These are already small-scale embryonic operas.
Tang poems, which can be called a must in literary history, could be sung in music at that time. At that time, Kazuki used to be able to sing famous poems as a pleasure; poets also used their poems to circulate widely to measure their writing skills.
The prosperity of music culture in the Tang Dynasty is also manifested in a series of music education institutions, such as Jiaofang, Liyuan, Great Music Department, Advocacy Department, and Liyuan Special Educational Garden, which specializes in teaching young children. These institutions have produced batches of talented musicians with strict performance appraisals.
The development of music culture in the Song Dynasty was marked by the prosperity of citizen music, which was more in-depth development than the music of the Sui and Tang Dynasties. With the prosperity of the urban commodity economy, the entertainment venues " Wash " and " Golan " suitable for the cultural life of the citizen class have emerged. In "Wash" and "Golden", people can hear the singing of art songs such as call, pursing, small sing, and sing to make money; you can also see the rap music types Yaci, Tao Zhen, Guzi Ci, various Gong tunes, as well as performances in Laju and academy; This earned them sing in the wrapped so, wrapped up two kinds of musical structure has a certain influence on the musical structure of the later operas and instrumental music. The Drum Ci will affect later generations of rap music drums. Zhong Tune is a large-scale rap song that matured during this period. Among them, singing occupies a heavier weight.
Inheriting the legacy of the development of Sui and Tang tunes, Song tune music has achieved unprecedented development. The literary genre of singing with long and short sentences can be divided into lyric forms such as quotation, slowness, closeness, beat, and order. There are already " shaping ", " decreasing characters ", " stealth " and so on in the way of writing words. In the Southern Song Dynasty, Jiang Kui was a well-known lyricist and musician who could not only write lyrics but also learn music by his words. He has seventeen self-du tunes and one piano song " Ancient Resentment " with reduced characters. These works mostly express the author's caring for the people of the motherland and portray a quiet and desolate mood, such as " Yangzhou Man ", " Ling Xi Mei Ling ", " Xinghua Tianying " and so on. The guqin music of the Song Dynasty set the precedent of the guqin genre with Guo Chuwang 's masterpiece " Xiaoxiang Water Cloud ". The work expresses the author's full interest in the mountains and rivers of the motherland. In the long history of the development of bowed string instruments, there was a record of "Ponytail Huqin" in the Song Dynasty.
In the Yuan Dynasty, the appearance of the national musical instrument Sanxian was worth noting. In music theory, there was a record of the Yanyue scale in the Song Dynasty. At the same time, the early Gongchi genealogy also appeared in Zhang Yan's " Etymology " and Shen Kuo's " Mengxi Bi Tan ". A kind of gong chi spectrum prevailing in modern times is directly derived from this time. The Song Dynasty was also an era when Chinese opera became mature. It is a sign of the Southern Song Dynasty Southern drama arise. The Southern Opera is also called Wenzhou Zaju and Yongjia Zaju, and its music is rich and natural. In the beginning, some folk tunes can be sung without being restricted by palace tunes. Later, when it developed into Qupai opera music, there was also a " set tune " form that organized several phrases of different tunes to form a new tune. There are solo, duet, and chorus in Nanxi opera. The three kinds of southern dramas handed down, " Zhang Xie Zhuangyuan ", etc. can be seen in "Yongle Daqu". In the Yuan Dynasty, the art of opera appeared at its peak represented by Yuan Zazu. Yuan Zaju flourished in the north, and gradually developed to the south, blending with southern opera. Representative Yuan drama writers include Han Qing, Ma Zhiyuan, Zheng Guangzu, Bai Pu, and Wang Shifu, and Qiao Jifu. Typical works such as Guan Hanqing's " Dou E's Injustice ", "Single Sword Meeting, Wang Shifu's " West Chamber ". Yuan Zaju has a strict structure, that is, each work is composed of four folds (acts) and one wedge (prologue or cutscene). One fold is limited to the same palace tune, one rhyme to the end, and is often sung by a character (mo or dan). These rules sometimes have breakthroughs. For example, Wang Shifu’s " West Chamber " reaches five books and 20% off. The influence of Zaju of the Yuan Dynasty on the southern opera led to the further maturity of the southern opera (called a legend in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties). A series of typical plays appeared, such as "The Moon Court", " Pipa " and so on. These scripts have been passed down through generations and are still being performed today. At that time, the style of the Southern and Northern Songs had been initially established, with the seven-tone scale mainly composed of Beiqu Shenxiong; the main pentatonic scale of Nanqu Rowan. With the development of opera art in the Yuan Dynasty, the earliest monograph summarizing opera singing theory appeared, namely " Singing Theory " by Yannan Zhian, and Zhou Deqing 's " Zhongyuan Yinyun " was the earliest rhyme book of Northern Opera. The language is divided into nineteen rhymes, and the tones are divided into four types: Yinping, Yangping, Shangsheng, and Cushing. This has a great influence on the research of later generations of phonology and the development of opera rap music.
Ming and Qing era
Because the Ming and Qing society had the budding of capitalist economic factors, the civic class was growing, and the development of music culture became more secular. The folk tunes of the Ming Dynasty were rich in content. Although the good and the bad were uneven, their influence had reached a level of "regardless of men and women." ", the degree of "everyone learns". As a result, private collection and editing, publishing, and engraving of small tunes have become popular, and private publications have come out from folk songs to songbooks, opera essays, and piano music. Such as " Folk Songs " edited by Feng Menglong, and " Magic Secret Score " edited by Zhu Quan. The greatest contribution of Zhu Zaiyu 's "The Complete Book of Music and Regulations " to ancient culture is that he created the twelve equal temperaments. This is a revolution in musicology and music physics, and a major invention in the history of world science.
The rap music in the Ming and Qing Dynasties was colorful. Among them, Tanti from the South, Drum Ci from the North, and rap music such as Paizo, Qinshu, and Daoqing are more important. Among the beautiful Tanti in the South, Suzhou Tanci has the most influence. In the Qing Dynasty, there were three important schools in Suzhou: the desolate and vigorous Chen tunes represented by Chen Yuqian; the straightforward and hearty horse tune represented by Ma Rufei; and the beautiful and soft Yu tunes represented by Yu Xiushan. Many new genres have multiplied in the future. The drums in the north are Shandong Drum, Jizhong Wood Drum, Xihe Drum, and Jingyun Drum are more important. The brand raps include monoxide, Henan major tunes, etc.; Qinshu rap includes Shandong Qinshu, Sichuan Yangqin, etc.; Daoqing rap includes Zhejiang Daqing, Shaanxi Daqing, and Hubei Yugu. The four loudest tunes in the early Ming Dynasty were Haiyan, Yuyao, Yiyang, and Kunshan tunes. Among them, the Kunshan tune was reformed by Wei Liangfu and others in Taicang, Jiangsu Province . . The Kunshan accent passed through the confluence of north and south operas, forming the Kunqu Opera which was the crown of opera for a time. The earliest repertoire of Kunqu Opera is Ming Liang Chenyu ’s " Wan Sha Ji ", other important repertoires such as Ming Tang Xianzu’s " Peony Pavilion ", Qing Hongsheng’s "Eternal Life Palace " etc. Yiyangqiang, with its flexible and changeable characteristics, has an important influence on dialect small dramas in various regions, which makes small dramas in various regions increase, such as various high-tone dramas. At the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, the Bangzi accent represented by Shaanxi Xiqin Opera in the north developed rapidly. It influenced the Bangzi in Puzhou in Shanxi, the Bangzi in Tongzhou in Shaanxi, the Bangzi in Hebei, and the Bangzi in Henan. This high-pitched and bold clapper voice has endured in the northern provinces for a long time. The late Qing Dynasty, consisting of Sipi two yellow and two basic melody skin yellow cavity, initially formed in Beijing, thus, had an impact throughout the country of opera.
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, instrumental music was developed in the emergence of various forms of instrumental ensemble among the folk. Such as Beijing’s Zhihua Temple Wind Music, Hebei Songs, Jiangnan Sizhu, Shifan Gongs and Drums, and so on. Qin tunes such as " Pingsha Falling Wild Goose " in the Ming Dynasty, " Flowing Water " in the Qing Dynasty, and several rich qin songs " Yangguan Three Die " and " Eighteen Pai of Hu Jia " are widely spread. Pipa music from the Yuan and Ming are " Haiqing the Swan " and " House of Flying Daggers " and other songs come out, to the Qing Dynasty also appeared Hua Qiuping first "edited Pipa spectrum ." At the end of the Ming Dynasty, the famous music temperament expert Zhu Zaiyu calculated the ratio of the length between two adjacent temperaments (semitones) of the twelve equal temperaments, accurate to 25 digits. This achievement in temperament is the first in the world.
During the late Ming Dynasty in the 16th century, Western music was spread to China through missionaries. In Ricci Beijing presented to Emperor Wanli gift list, there is a piano West, according to test, this is a clavichord. In the early Qing Dynasty, the missionary Xu Risheng taught Emperor Kangxi's western music theory and authored the book "Lü Lu Zhuan Yao". Stave scores were also introduced to China at this time. During Emperor Qianlong's time, a Western orchestra was formed in the palace. The musical instruments included violin, cello, double bass, woodwind, clarinet, xylophone, organ, and guqin. When playing, they wore Western wigs.
At the end of the 19th century, China was forced to open the southern coast and began to come into contact with Western music and musical instruments. Guangdong music was the first to take the brunt. It first absorbed Western harmony methods, created new instruments, Yangqin and Xylophone, and developed music for band ensemble. Guangdong music still has its own uniqueness. The charm is a model of a relatively successful combination of Chinese and Western.
Folk musicians have created a new stage for the development of Chinese musical instruments. Erhu composer Liu Tianhua customized the erhu position, improved his performance techniques, and composed ten erhu solo pieces, such as " Good Night ", " Bright Days ", " Sickness " The performer Hua Yanjun (blind A Bing ) composed the erhu song " Two Springs Reflecting the Moon ", " Listening to the Pine ", and the pipa song " Big Waves Washing the Sand ". Despite the turmoil of the time, Chinese folk music has made great progress in both solo and band ensembles.
During the New Culture Movement from the 1910s to the 1920s, many Chinese musicians who studied abroad returned to China and began to play European classical music and began to record new works with staff. New symphony orchestras have been formed in big cities, which mix European classical music and jazz, and are very popular in concert halls and radios. In the 1930s, Shanghai reached its heyday.
Although Western instruments and musical methods are used, popular music is still in the Chinese way, that is, melody-based and pentatonic-based so that it can be loved by most people. Zhou Xuan was one of the most popular performers at the time and a representative of popular music at the time. The theme songs " Song of the End of the World " and " Song of Four Seasons " sung for the movie " Angels on the Road " were extremely popular at the time, in line with the anti-Japanese sentiment of the people. , Is called "Golden Throat".
Chinese Communist Revolutionary Music
During the Northern Expedition, Chinese musicians cooperated with the revolution and composed a large number of revolutionary songs, which were widely sung in the National Revolutionary Army. Some of them used foreign popular songs directly with revolutionary lyrics.
During the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, musicians were even more like enemies and wrote a lot of anti-Japanese songs. Xian Xinghai 's " Yellow River Cantata " was magnificent, reflecting the spirit of the nation's anti-Japanese war at that time. "The March of the Volunteers " composed by Nie Er for the movie " Children of the Storm " is even more majestic. It became a military anthem for soldiers and civilians to resist Japan and was sung everywhere. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, to be prepared for danger in times of peace and not forget how the Chinese nation resisted foreign aggression, the volunteers will be sent to the army. The march is set as the national anthem.
After the Yan'an Conference in 1942, areas controlled by the Communist Party began to rewrite local folk songs into revolutionary songs, such as the Shaanxi folk song " Dongfanghong ". The purpose of the rewriting is to spread communist ideas among the mostly illiterate peasant population.
During the Cultural Revolution, Western music became illegal again. Revolutionary songs and so-called "quotation songs" have been repopulated, together with dictatorial " model plays ", and foreign exchanges have almost ceased. Even at the banquet to welcome US President Nixon, the band played the American song "Turkey on the Haystack" At that time, the Minister of Culture had to protest to the Prime Minister, and mainland Chinese music entered a low period. But the development of music is not completely stagnant.
During the Cultural Revolution "model operas" Although too overbearing, but the Western orchestral introduction to opera accompaniment, produces a special effect, under vigorous orchestral background jinghu and percussion sound, the more prominent features of opera music, but also a The development of Chinese and Western integration. Especially the French horn solo in the "Fighting the Tiger Up the Mountain" is a natural fit with Jinghu singing behind it, which is worthy of appreciation.
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, in addition to revolutionary songs, popular songs were added to Soviet popular songs translated into Chinese. Around the world began to establish symphony orchestras to perform Western classical music and new works by Chinese composers. Eastern European orchestras have performed in China many times, and Chinese orchestras have also participated in many international performances. Chinese musicians have also tried to use Western instrumental methods to write music with a Chinese flavor. One of the more successful examples is the Violin Concerto "The Butterfly Lovers ", which adopted part of Yue opera's melody.
The exchanges with third-world countries are also increasing. For this reason, the Oriental Song and Dance Ensemble was established, which specializes in learning and singing folk songs from various ethnic groups in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. It is very popular in China. Chinese music has an impact. The orchestration and ensemble styles of Chinese national bands have also been basically finalized, producing many successful national instrumental symphonies.
Chinese folk music has begun to receive widespread attention from all over the world. Every Spring Festival, Chinese New Year concerts are held at the Golden Hall in Vienna, and there are full seats.
Mainland cultural revolution music
The Cultural Revolution was a special stage in mainland history. During this period, several songs and operas with the characteristics of the Cultural Revolution also appeared, affecting the entire generation of youth during that period. Some of them have become popular military songs and are widely circulated in the People's Liberation Army today. The more famous one is " I Love This Blue Ocean " sung by Hu Baoshan.
Hong Kong and Taiwan
In the 1950s and 1960s, Hong Kong and Taiwan continued the old Shanghai feasting style. As the Japanese economy took off, Japanese modern pop music began to have an impact on Hong Kong and Taiwan. Hong Kong and Taiwan singers such as Ouyang Feifei, Weng Qianyu, Teresa Teng sang a large number of Japanese songs. In the 1980s, a new generation of musicians emerged in Hong Kong and Taiwan with a broader vision. They combined European and American popular forms with Chinese music, creating a new situation in Hong Kong and Taiwan popular music, and had a significant impact on the mainland.
The campus songs in Taiwan and the singing style pioneered by Teresa Teng have brought Chinese popular music to a peak. It has the unique style and charm of Chinese music. When Teresa Teng held a concert in the United States, it attracted many stage performers and Americans to enjoy it in the background. Although they can't understand Chinese lyrics.
Since China's reform and opening up, popular music first entered China from Hong Kong and Taiwan, especially Taiwan’s campus songs and songs sung by Teresa Teng, which are very popular in mainland China. Zhang Mingmin 's "My Chinese Heart", which was performed at the Chinese New Year Gala on China Central Television, became an instant hit in China. This is also the first public performance of Hong Kong and Taiwan songs in mainland China. Since then, Chinese popular songs have been combined with various styles and genres of music from other parts of the world, resulting in many popular songs. China's popular music has developed rapidly and has become a new force that cannot be underestimated in the world's popular music.
Popular music in Taiwan and Hong Kong has developed very rapidly, basically in line with international trends, especially in Hong Kong. Because of the economic dividend of Hong Kong’s return, many famous singers and songs have appeared. They are popular in mainland China and by fans from Japan, South Korea, and other places. Worship.
Chinese pop music in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and other parts of the world are constantly exchanging, and there is a trend of mutual integration and convergence. Therefore, the general title of " Global Chinese Pop Music " began to appear. An outstanding performance: Mainland China is one of the world's largest consumer markets, and the release and compilation of major popular music charts in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and overseas are increasingly focusing on the mainland market.
It is worth noting that among popular music, there is a kind of folk music. Their typical representatives are campus folk songs, metropolitan folk songs, and military camp folk songs. This folk music also has a place in popular music, and they have had their glory. Years, the simple tunes of folk songs, and popular lyrics have also moved many people.