Jing nationality, also known as Yue nationality, is the main ethnic group in Vietnam, accounting for 86% of the total population of Vietnam, and is Vietnamese in a narrow sense. In China, the Jing nationality is regarded as one of the ethnic minorities. In 1958, the State Council of the people's Republic of China named this ethnic group in China Jing ethnic group. In Vietnam, the official also used the name "Jing ethnic group" to distinguish it from other ethnic groups.
From the linguistic point of view, the native language of Jing people is generally considered to belong to the South Asian language family, so Jing people are generally regarded as the South Asian language family. Another view is that the Jing nationality is the main body of Luoyue, the descendant of Baiyue Zhuang and Dong nationality, and it is a re-integrated nationality by joining zhanren of Nandao nationality, Khmer of South Asian nationality, and Han of Sino Tibetan nationality. Because of the influence of Chinese culture for a long time, Jing culture is closer to East Asia than Southeast Asia.
Social customs and habits
The Jing people mainly believe in Taoism and Buddhism, and a few belief in Catholicism. Most of the houses of the Jing nationality are brick houses, which are relatively solid to prevent the sea breeze. Rice is the main food, fish and shrimp are more, like to use fish sauce seasoning. Women wear a short jacket with narrow sleeves, close-fitting and collarless, and the trousers are long and wide; men's jacket is knee-long, with narrow sleeves covering the chest and a belt around the waist.
The single string Qin is a unique national musical instrument of the Jing nationality with elegant timbre. Generally, the body is made of half a piece of bamboo tube or three pieces of wood. It is about 75 cm long. At one end, a small column or metal strip at a right angle to the body is inserted. At the other end, a handle is pressed and a string is drawn from high to low. The sound is very elegant.
Besides the Spring Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival, and the Mid Autumn Festival, the most solemn and lively festival of the Jing people is the HA Festival.
Ha Festival, also known as "singing ha Festival", means singing. It is the traditional song festival of the Jing nationality, which is full of singing and dancing all night. On the 10th day of June (Xuwei, Wutou Island) or the 10th day of August (Shanxi Island) and the 25th day of the first month (hong kan township), the local Jing people celebrate the most solemn "Ha Festival", which is sung by the singer "Ha Mei" in turn. Singing activities should be carried out continuously for three days and three nights, with banquets and singing at the same time. Singing had was held in hating, a building with a unique national style.
It is said that seven or eight hundred years ago, a singer came to the Jing nationality area to fight against the feudal rich owners with beautiful and profound songs, which was very popular among the Jing people. In memory of the singer, hurting was set up. During the festival, the whole village got together to sing and dance all night, and held activities such as greeting gods, ancestor worship, martial arts competition, and wrestling in hating.
Ha Festival used to be held every year on different dates. Every ha Festival, the men, women, and children of the Beijing family, dressed in festive costumes, gather at HA ting to meet the gods and offer sacrifices before listening to ha, praying for a good harvest in the fishing industry and a flourishing population and livestock. The activity process of singing HA can be roughly divided into four parts: greeting God, offering sacrifices to God, taking part in singing HA, and sending God away. On the day before the festival, the "king of Zhenhai" and other gods worshipped by the Beijing family were welcomed to hating. On the day of the festival, they began to worship the gods around three o'clock in the afternoon. This is the main activity of the festival. The programs include love songs, lantern dance, music and dance, singing and singing, etc. This is the climax of the festival.
People indulge in singing and dancing for many days. At the end of the singing, the festival is over.
(1) catfish juice
The most popular food of the Beijing people is fish and shrimp. The fishermen of Beijing nationality usually marinate a sauce with small fish, called catfish juice, which is one of the unique products in the area of Beijing.
Catfish juice is generally called fish dew in the market. It is a kind of sauce marinated with small fish. From March to June every year, fishermen's family pickles catfish juice: straw and sandbag are used as filter layer on the bottom of a large washable tank. A small hole is chiseled at the bottom of the tank under the filter layer, and the plug and leakage pipe are installed. Spread the cleaned fish and salt layer by layer in the tank.
After the cylinder is filled, press the heavy stone up and seal it. After a week, open the drain tube, catfish juice continues to flow out, it's color such as thick clear juice, fragrance overflowing, hanging people's appetite. When it comes to the leakage tube, catfish juice can not be discharged, and the head drain will be taken. Then add the cooled saltwater to the cylinder, and then take the "two leakage juice" in a few days; finally, press and filter the "three leakage juice".
In terms of its quality, it is almost more than once. Therefore, the first leakage juice is exported to Southeast Asian countries, and the second leakage juice is sold in the domestic market, and the three leakage juice is usually eaten by oneself. Even if it is three leakages of juice, it will make the first taster praise, aftertaste fresh. As the saying goes, "thousands of juice, not as good as Jingjia catfish juice.". Add catfish juice when making soup, the soup tastes delicious immediately; when eating meat dip catfish juice, the entrance will feel fragrant.
(2) wind blowing (meter)
It is a food made of rice, and it is eaten as a snack. Soak rice in hot water and grind it into powder, scoop it into an aluminum tray with a diameter of 40 cm, float the pan in the boiling pan, steam it into a thin powder film, sprinkle sesame seeds, and then dry it on the big eye contempt screen and dry it with charcoal fire. Because of its light and thin, it seems that it can rise against the wind, so it is called "wind blowing (meter).
Its taste is crisp and delicious, travel to sea or home to treat guests, are very convenient. If the steamed powder film is cut into thin silk and dried, it will become "fans". Mix the seafood of fans, shellfish, crab meat, dried sandworms, and shrimp in a pot, which means "rice and silk seafood soup". It will be unforgettable for a lifetime if you taste it once.
Jing Men generally wear knee-length clothes, open chest waist, narrow sleeves, waist belt.
On the other hand, the women of Jing nationality wear diamond-shaped breast covering cloth inside and short jacket without a collar and double-breasted outside. The body is tight and the sleeves are narrow. They wear long trousers with wide legs, mostly black or brown. When you go out, wear a light cheongsam-style long coat. Women like to dye their teeth black and tie a "chopping block bun". The upper part of the body is wrapped around the waist to highlight the body, making the woman look graceful and graceful. The lower part of the body is extended to the waist, making it convenient to move. The most distinctive decoration of the Jing nationality is their bamboo hat.
Nowadays, there are still some elderly women in the Jing nationality areas who wear ethnic costumes, such as narrow sleeves, close-fitting, collarless jacket, and diamond-shaped bra, black or brown trousers, and white long coat when going out, which looks like a cheongsam with high slit and knot "chopping block bun". A few women still keep the habit of dyeing their teeth black. But now the clothing of most young men and women is similar to that of Han people nearby.