Llute is a plucked stringed instrument with a curved neck. Generally, this term mainly refers to the general term for a type of ancient musical instruments used in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Baroque period. It was the most popular family solo instrument in Europe during the Renaissance. In addition, in the broad classification of musical instruments, similar musical instruments are collectively referred to as "Lute genus". At this time, it is not limited to age and country, so guitar, Chinese pipa, Japanese pipa, etc. can all be included.
Europe can play on the lute chords, melodies, running sentences, all kinds of ornaments, and even para- music; it is used as an accompaniment to sing solo instruments, can also be used in the trio, the skilled performer can play A colorful effect.
His origin and name come from the Arab "Al'ud", which was introduced to Europe by Muslims in the 9th-10th century. The Arabic word Al'ud originally means wood. This pear-shaped plucked stringed instrument is related to Asia. The pipa and even the biwa in Japan have a common source from West Asia.
Medieval lute group only five strings, made of feathers plectrum playing, therefore, mostly based on ensemble playing dance music or the way the songs as accompaniment.
The earliest lute recorded by the Sumerians in 4000 BC is two strings; the lute was found in a stone carving document about 1400 BC in Egypt. The structure of the two is roughly the same, and it is speculated that the prehistoric age The Sumerians have already been in contact with the Egyptians. In addition to the same structure, their strings are also two strings, both of which are a small carcass. There are also many positions (piano grids) on the long poles. The only difference is: Sumerian lute's shank extends all the way to the end of the surface plate, and then is used as a protruding fixing method at the end, while the Egyptian lute's shank does not extend to the tail, and the surface is stitched with leather Tied to the handle.
The lute also appeared in different shapes of shells, including small pear-shaped, oval-shaped and hemispherical. At the same time, from the eighth to the fourth century BC, the lute developed into three or four strings; in the eighth century BC, Persia A short lute appears on the mural, and its handle is equal to or shorter than the resonance carcass. From the second century to the first century BC, a lute with a tapered sound in the center of the sound was found in Kendall.
The European lute can be traced back to the Cantigas de Santa Maria in 1270 in the book. Generally speaking, the medieval lute is consistent with his Arab ancestors in appearance, playing technique, and even music.
It is very close. Until the end of the 15th century, European lutes had their own unique development, mainly due to changes in techniques, people began to use fingers to play, so multi-voice works can be played on lutes, and a new chapter was added. The six-string group is slender and elegant in appearance. Previously, lutes were often made of expensive materials, with different sizes and exquisite workmanship. But the standard lute is pear-shaped. It has a single string and five sets of polyphonic strings. It is tuned as G-c-f-a-d'-go. The neck has a lattice and the tuning box is bent backward. At right angles.
On the lute can play chords, melodies, running sentences, all kinds of ornaments, and even para- music; it is used as an accompaniment to sing solo instruments, can also be used in the trio, the skilled performer can play A colorful effect.
Lute players use an economical and convenient notation method called tablature (chart notation). The principle is that the symbol is not used to indicate the pitch of each note, but to indicate where the finger needs to be on the string. Press to make the desired pitch.
The development of various factors has made the evolution of the lute into a perfect maturity period, creating the golden age of the lute for nearly 150 years.
It is not difficult to imagine why the lute was so attractive to the people of the time. It is light and portable, cheaper and easier to maintain than keyboard instruments. It is extremely versatile. It can be used to play dance music, popular melodies, even polyphonic vocal music, accompaniment songs, and very He quickly produced his own solo repertoire, such as the prelude, passemezzi, and the larger and exquisite fantasia and ricercare. The most fascinating thing about the lute is its silver bell-like tone and the six-string design, which is very similar. Modern guitars have very different sounds. The low-tension gut strings and the special resonance of the pear-shaped speakers create an extremely rich and detailed sound that cannot be replaced by a guitar.
At the end of the 16th century, the mainstream music style had an important change: monody form, the birth of opera.
The lute also has some new evolutions and experiments. The seventh group of bass strings is added, then the eighth group, the ninth group, and finally the fourteenth group.
In the long history of the lute, according to the estimation of scholar Arthur Ness, there are about 25,000 Renaissance lute works, and there is the same number in the Baroque period. This is only the music notated by Tablature, not including the general notation. Not surprisingly, most of today’s lutes started with the guitar but were tempted to change by the rich repertoire of the lute. The lute witnessed the golden years of a series of compositions, first in the Renaissance In Italy during the period, Francesco da Milano's top-performing composer was Francesco da Milano. He and Michelangelo ( Michelangelo ) were both called Divino', metaphors that they were inspired by God. His performance turned all thoughts to heaven. The works of Da Milano and his composers of the same period follow the Renaissance polyphonic counterpoint composition principle, balanced, elegant, full of sound, and spiritually similar to the paintings of painters such as Botticelli in the early Renaissance.
In the middle of the 16th century, Spain also produced some excellent composers. The difference is that they play vihuela, which is simply a guitar-shaped lute. There are different opinions about why the lute was popular in Europe, but Spain favored vihuela. , But it should be related to its unique cultural and historical background.
These composers and their music, in the 20th century, thanks to the efforts of the Spanish (Catalonian) guitarist Pujol, were made public and widely played. The next climax of the lute was in the period of Queen Elizabeth of England, with John Dowland The sweet and welcoming Lute Air and solo songs are the best.
The lute is almost entirely made of wood. The shape of the speaker is similar to a pear-cut in half. As a classical guitar, there is a front panel and a soundhole, but the soundhole usually has a delicate hollow carved pattern, which becomes a "rose" (meaning "rose"). For roses). The back is not flat, but a protruding arc, with a rib-like structure inlaid with wood chips. The speaker is hollow and there are no pillars inside.
The neck is made of light wood, the fingerboard of the frame is made of a harder thick plate, and the tuning box is bent back at a right angle. The neck of the Renaissance was flat and straight, and then the curvature gradually increased, eventually becoming the current curved neck shape.
The strings are generally made of gut. In the early 17th century, metals such as lead were used to make the bass strings. In the middle of the 17th century, the core of the gut was used, and a fine metal wire was wound on the outside. Synthetic fiber materials such as nylon are also used in modern times.
In the hands of an angel, the lute symbolizes the beauty of heaven. Furthermore, it symbolizes harmony. Historically, the lute is full of symbolic meaning. From the paintings of the Renaissance period, it can be seen that the lute is unique in art. status.
After the silence of the 19th century, the lute gradually revived in the second half of the 20th century, which was due to the prosperity of the recording industry, but recording could not truly retain the magic of the lute, compared to actual performance. Still very rare and precious.
The lute is a family of musical instruments, including a variety of instruments. Different types of lutes differ in shape, structure, a number of strings, and tone.
A lute generally has at least six strings. The number of string groups starts from the smallest group: the first group is a single string, called chanterelle (chanterelle, meaning singer in French), followed by a polyphonic string composed of two strings. The second group of Baroque lutes also have single strings. The polyphonic string in the middle and high range is generally a same-degree polyphonic (two strings are pronounced the same), and the polyphonic string in the low-range range is generally an octave polyphonic (the two strings are pronounced octave apart). In a set of octave polyphonic strings, the lower-sounding string plays the main role, and the higher-octave string is only for increasing overtones, so the lower-sounding string is installed on the bass side. Now, when you pluck a string with your thumb, you will mainly pluck the lower-pronounced string.