The Manchu-Han Feast, which emerged in the Qing Dynasty, is the most famous Chinese banquet in history formed by collecting the essence of Manchu and Han dishes. During the Qianlong Jiashen period, Li Dou's "Yangzhou Painted Boat Records" contains a list of Manchu and Han banquets, which is the earliest record of the Manchu and Han banquets.
The Man-Han Feast is mainly Northeast, Shandong, Beijing, Jiangsu and Zhejiang dishes. Treasures in the secular so-called "Man-Han Feast", such as nose, fish bones, fish roe, Hieracium mushroom, bear paw, hashi, deer tail (tendon, preserved meat, whip, etc.), leopard fetus, and other rare raw materials. Later, dishes from Fujian, Guangdong and other places also appeared on the giant banquet. 54 Southern dishes: 30 Jiangsu and Zhejiang dishes, 12 Fujian dishes, and 12 Cantonese dishes. 54 North dishes: 12 Beijing dishes, 30 Shandong dishes and 12 Manchu dishes.
Before the Qing Dynasty entered the customs, the palace banquet was very simple. In general banquets, animal skins are spread in the open air, and everyone gathers together and eats on the ground. "Man Wen Lao Dian" records: "When the Baylors held a banquet, they did not set up a table, they all sat on the floor." The dishes are usually hot pot with stewed meat, pork, beef and mutton with animal meat. The state banquet attended by the emperor only had more than a dozen tables or dozens of tables, including cattle, sheep, pigs, and breast meat. The meat was cut with a knife for food. After customs clearance, the situation has changed a lot. Among the six departments of Jiuqing, there is a special Guanglu Temple Qing, who specializes in banquets during the large internal banquet and the national ceremony. When the Manchus first entered the customs, the diet was not very particular, but soon based on the original Manchu traditional diet, it absorbed the characteristics of the Han nationality's northern and southern cuisines (mainly Suzhe cuisine and Shandong cuisine) and established a relatively rich Court diet.
According to the records of "The Great Qing Huidian" and "Guanglu Temple Rules", after Kangxi, the full seats hosted by Guanglu Temple were divided into six classes: the first class full seats and the price of each table were eighty-two books for birthday banquets, generally used for the emperor, A feast after death. Second-class seats, the price per table is seven two two three cents four percent of silver, which is generally used for the feast after the death of the imperial concubine. The third-class seats cost five, two, four and four cents of silver per table. They are generally used for feasts after the death of concubines, concubines and concubines. The fourth-class seats cost four, two, four and three cents of silver per table. They are mainly used for celebration banquets on New Year's Day, Longevity, Winter Solstice, emperor's wedding, army triumph, princess or princess's wedding, and the death of nobles. After the feast and so on. The fifth-class seats cost three, two, three and three cents of silver per table. They are mainly used for banquets for the chief and deputy envoys of North Korea, the tribute of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama of Tibet, and the princesses who marry the foreign feudal clan and Mongolian princes. Tai Ji and other food feasts.
The sixth-class seats cost two, two, two and six cents of silver per table. They are mainly used to give banquets and lectures, to Emperor Yan Sheng to the dynasty, Vietnam, Ryukyu, Siam, Burma, Sulu, Nanchang and other countries. The Han banquet hosted by Guanglu Temple is divided into five categories: first, second and third class, upper banquet and middle banquet. They are mainly used for the Linyong banquet civil and martial arts examination examiner’s banquet, the official record, the meeting ceremony and other books compilation day and completion day. Banquet and so on. Among them, there are first-class seats for officials such as the examination and Zhi, Gongju, etc. Each table contains 23 bowls of goose, fish, chicken, duck, pig, etc., eight bowls of fruit food, three bowls of steamed food, and four bowls of vegetable food. The second-class seats are used for the same examiners, supervisors, censors, etc., each table contains 20 bowls of fish, chicken, duck, pig, etc., and fruits, vegetables, etc. are the same as the first-class seats. Inner curtain, outer curtain, receiving palm, and the Ministry of Rites, Guanglu Temple, Honghu Temple, Taiyuan Hospital and other deacons all use third-class seats. Each table includes fifteen bowls of fish, chicken, pigs, fruits and vegetables. Food waiting is the same as first-class seats. Wen Jinshi's grace feast, Wu Jinshi's martial arts banquet, the chairman, ministers, deacons and other officials use the seats, and the upper seats are divided into high and low tables. A high table set up a treasure, using two catties of noodles and eight taels of noodles, a treasure package, nine bowls of food, five dishes of fruit, seven dishes of steamed food, and four dishes of vegetables. Pork and mutton are arranged on the low table, and the fish is one tail. Wenwu Jinshi and Mingzan officials use the middle seat, each table is decorated with a treasure, two catties of noodles, three silk flowers, and the rest are the same as the upper table.
The Man-Han Feast is actually not from the palace, but from Jiangnan's official cuisine. According to Li Dou's "Yangzhou Painted Boat Record": "The temples before and after going to Shanghai Street are all large kitchens to prepare six departments and one hundred officials: the first one, ten pieces of top five bowls-bird's nest chicken soup, sea cucumber Braised pork tendon, fresh razor clams and radish soup, kelp pork belly soup, abalone stewed loosestrife, mussels and shrimp soup, shark fin crab soup, mushroom simmered chicken, potter's hammer, fish belly simmered ham, shark skin chicken soup, blood meal soup The first-grade soup rice bowl. The second one, ten pieces of No. 2 five-gui bowl-carp tongue braised bear paw, rice glutinous lips, pig brain, fake leopard fetus, steamed hump, steamed civet with pear slices, steamed deer tail, pheasant Sliced soup, Fengzhu slices, Fengyang slices, rabbit breast milk house sign, first-grade soup rice bowl. The third one, ten thin white soup bowls-pork belly, fake Jiangyao, duck tongue soup, chicken bamboo shoots porridge, pig Nao soup, hibiscus egg, goose gizzard soup, steamed anchovy, fake spot fish liver, Xi Shi milk, Vance tofu soup, turtle meat slice soup, cocoon soup, first-grade soup rice bowl. Fourth serving, hairy blood plate Twenty pieces-broiled, halba, piglet, deep-fried pork and mutton, grilled chicken, goose, duck, pigeon, assorted pigs, assorted haggis, singed pig and mutton, boiled pig and mutton, steamed Piggy, lamb, chicken, duck, goose, white flour and pastry rolls, assorted fire, plum buns. Fifth, 20 foreign dishes, 20 hot dishes and 20 flavors, 20 small dishes, ten dried fruits The table is full of fresh fruits. The so-called Man Han Xi is also."
This is the Yangzhou "big kitchen" of the "six divisions and one hundred officials" who visited Yangzhou. From the analysis of written data, the Manchu and Han banquet should originate from Yangzhou. This kind of Manchu and Han banquet gathered the essence of the palace full banquet and Han banquet. Later, it became the general term for large-scale luxurious banquets. The dishes were continuously added and updated, and it became the epitome of Chinese cuisine.