The total population of Manchu is 10.682 million (in 2000), ranking second among China's 55 ethnic minorities. Manchu has its own language and writing. Baishanheishui in Northeast China is the hometown of Manchu. In 1644, the Qing army entered the pass and gradually unified the whole country. From then on, Manchu aristocrats began to rule the whole country. After the revolution of 1911, the Qing government fell.
Manchu population is distributed in all parts of the country, with Liaoning, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Beijing and other provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the central government as the majority. The rest scattered in Xinjiang, Gansu, Ningxia, Shandong, Hubei, Guizhou, and other provinces and regions, as well as Xi'an, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Fuzhou, and other large and medium-sized cities.
Manchu is a hardworking, brave, and intelligent nation. It is also a nation good at absorbing foreign culture and integrating innovation. The customs of the Manchu are similar to those of the Han nationality in long-term development.
Manchu cooking is good at burning and roasting and is good at using raw sauce. Vegetables vary with seasons, mixed with wild vegetables and fungi. The ancestors of Manchu were fond of fishing and hunting. In addition to poultry and livestock meat, they also used deer Lian, Zhang, leopard, wild goose, fish, and so on. Especially like pork. Pork is usually boiled in white water, which is called "white boiled meat". Roast whole sheep is often used for a big banquet. Man is afraid of dog meat. It is forbidden to use anything made of dog skin without wearing a dog skin hat. It is said that dogs saved the lives of Manchu ancestors, so Manchu people have special feelings for dogs.
In history, most Manchu men wore robes with horseshoe sleeves, belts around their waists, or long robes with a pair of lapels. In summer, they wore cool hats and in winter, they wore leather hats. The clothes are made of blue, blue, brown cotton, silk, silk, satin, and other materials. The trouser legs are tied with blue leg belts. The feet wear cotton boots or leather boots. In winter, they wear leather Wula. Braid the top and shave the hair around.
Women like to wear a cheongsam that is long enough to reach their feet or a jacket. The clothes are made of silk, damask, gauze or cotton, and linen with various colors and patterns. Some of the cheongsam surfaces are embroidered into a group of patterns, more in the skirt, cuffs, neckline, hem inlaid with multi-layer fine lace. She wore white socks, embroidered shoes with flowered basin bottom, and blue, red, and pink leg bands on her trouser legs. Pan head wings, comb two heads, or flag bun. They like to wear earrings, bracelets, rings, hairpins, pomfrets, sideburns, and other decorations. Manchu men and women all like to hang accessories on their waists or the front of their clothes. Men have sickle, ear spoon, toothpick, glasses box, and fan belt. Women have sachets, purses, etc. Most of them are made of silk and satin, with a variety of designs and colors and exquisite production. After entering the customs, Manchu Qipao has been widely used among Chinese women.
Cheongsam: Cheongsam is the traditional dress of Manchu women. Cheongsam is characterized by a standing collar, a large right placket, a tight waist, and a slit at the hem. Ancient cheongsam has a Pipa skirt, Ruyi skirt, slant skirt, piping, or edge. After the 1920s, after improvement, the waist is loose, the cuff is wide, the length is moderate, easy to walk. It has become popular clothing for Chinese women. In the early 1930s, under the influence of Western short skirts, the length was shortened, almost to the knee, and the cuff was shrunk. In the mid-1930s, it was lengthened, with high underpants on both sides, highlighting the curvilinear beauty of women's figures. It was shortened in the 1940s, with short sleeves or sleeveless cheongsam and streamlined outside. After that, the front and back of the garment pieces were separated, and there were shoulder seams and sleeve style Qipao skirts. Qipao, with Oriental color, can fully show graceful and elegant manners. It is considered a typical national costume to show women's beauty and is well-known in the world. Cheongsam is basically the same as men's, just more decoration. Women's cheongsam is also a vertical long gown with large sleeves and wide lapels, with embroidered patterns at the hem and legs. Manchu women often inlay several patterns or colored teeth in the lapels, necklines, sleeve edges, etc., commonly known as "Hua Dao'er" or "Gou Ya'er". According to the seasonal changes, it can be divided into single, clip, cotton, leather, etc.
Manchu pay attention to etiquette. In the past, the younger generation gave the elder a small gift in three days and a big gift in five days. Every three days, the younger generation should send greetings to the elder. Every five days, the elder has to kowtow. The forms of beating are different between men and women. Men bow down, their right hands stretch down, their left hands hold their knees, like lifting objects, while women squat down with their hands. When you meet an old man you don't know, you should bow and drop your hand to ask "Saiyin" (Manchu, good meaning). If you are riding a horse, you need to get off the horse and get out of the way. When your elders pass, you can get on the horse and driver. When relatives and friends meet in the distance, they all give a big gift. “