Sichuan Language also known as Bashu dialect, belongs to southwestern Mandarin Chinese. The current Sichuan dialect was formed during the great migration movement of " Huguang fills Sichuan " during the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty. It was formed by the gradual evolution and integration of the Shu dialect popular in Sichuan before the Ming Dynasty and the dialects of immigrants from Huguang, Guangdong, Jiangxi, and other places.
Sichuan Language originates from Shu and Cuban, which are non-Han languages in ancient times. So far, the original layer of Sichuan dialect still retains “坝”（平地）、“姐”（母亲）、“养”（您）, the vocabulary of ancient Shu and Cuban in the period. After that, the Sichuan dialect continued to develop and change along with the historical process of the Shu area and the replacement of immigration. After the Qin eradicated Shu, the Shu area gradually formed a distinctive Shu dialect belonging to the Chinese ethnic group. Later in the Ming and Qing dynasties, as a large number of immigrants from Huguang and other places entered Sichuan, the Shu dialect evolved and merged with the dialects of immigrants in various places, and finally formed the current Sichuan dialect.
In the Middle Ages, the economic and cultural development of the Shu region reached its peak. As an independent language area, the Shu language continued to develop. At this time, the Shu language was very independent and difficult to communicate with languages outside the Shu region. When Fan Chengda of the Song Dynasty lived in Shu, he recorded the following in the poem note of " Bingshen Yuanri Anfu Temple Ceremony Tower " in Volume 17 of " Shihu Poetry Collection ": "The native sound of Shu people is extremely difficult to understand. "Yu". Or when it was arrogant, it was considered to be China, and the practice has not been changed until now, and it has been concealed, and it has been changed to "Lu language."
It can be seen that the pronunciations of Shu and Zhongyuan are completely different. Taking the Shu language of the Song Dynasty as an example, first of all, comparing the rhyme part of the Shu language with the Tongyu of the Song Dynasty, the rhyme part has a different classification or return character. For example, the word "yan" of the first part of Yangshengyunhan is read by the "qi" of Ren Wenbu and Yahoo. The reading is the same as "bald" in the house candle. Secondly, the intermediate sounds of the Shu dialect tend to be colloquial, and the three yang sound rhymes are mixed in some characters.
At the same time, the Shuyu Shengniu preserved the relics of ancient sounds such as "Ancient No Tongue" and "Zhao Ergui Jing". In addition, in terms of tones, Shu dialects are quite different in Ping Sheng Zi and Shang Qu Sheng Zi Gui Pai and Tong Yu. For example, the "Qing Yong Sentence" with the pronunciation of Gui Ping Sheng in Shu dialect "Qing" belongs to Ren Shang Sheng, "Yong Sentence" "Going back.
The population of Sichuan dialects is mainly distributed in the Envelope Basin, covering the entire Sichuan Province and Chongqing except for some non-Han ethnic communities (except Kai, which is one of the most populous Chinese branches.
Shu dialects have a high degree of internal interoperability and vocabulary, Grammar, phonology, etc. are relatively consistent, generally divided into four dialect areas as shown in the following figure according to the current reading situation of the ancient Rusheng: the western Sichuan film of the Rusheng Guiyangping, the Guanche Pian Minjiang small piece reserved by the Rusheng, and The Guan Chi Pian Renfu small piece of the sound of the return sound and the Guan Chi Pian Yamian small piece of the Rusheng Guiyinping.
Features of Sichuan dialect
Compared with Mandarin, the affixes of the Sichuan dialect are quite different. First of all, the Sichuan dialect has some unique affixes that are not found in Mandarin. For example, the common verb affix "dao" in Sichuan dialect can be combined into "evaluation" (to force), "familiar" (guess), and "mato" (to bully) ), "Si Dao" (thought), "Xing Dao" (be careful of temptation), "Yin Dao" (not publicity) and "You Dao" (attention) and other common terms. Another example is "you" is also a very common verb affix in Sichuan dialect, which can be composed of "Cueto", "Kantor", "you", "you", "you", "to discuss", Common expressions such as "review the head", such as "Diaoyucheng have fun?" in Sichuan dialect means "is Diaoyucheng fun?"
Second, although some affixes in the Sichuan dialect are also found in Mandarin, their scope of use and additional meanings are quite different. For example, the noun affix "zi" in the Sichuan dialect can form "bee" (bee) and "ear" (fungus). ), "Zizi" (fist), "Yangzi" (sheep), "Yanzi" (smoke), "Yanzi" (this year), "Next year" (next year) and other words that are not in Mandarin, and Sichuan dialect There are also "sub-molecules", "jiaojiaozi", "liangliangzi", "Sinjin", which are superimposed by quantifiers followed by the suffix "子", which is used to express special usages with a small number, such as "You are a net "Give me some corners" in Sichuan dialect means "how can you only give me corners".
In addition, there is no Er-suffix in the Beijing dialect, and the suffix "er" appears in the form of "er", but in Sichuan dialect, there are "pants", "hat", "water", "doer" and "steal". There are a lot of suffixes such as "er", "younger" and "goer".
At the same time, the noun suffix "jia" can be used to express the opposition between people in Sichuan dialect, such as "girl's house" and "erwazijia", "women's house" and "man's house", and "water's house" and "Adult family" (in this case, the suffix "Jia" can also be overlapped to express contempt. For example, "the son of a child's family, still cheesy" means "how can a boy be so stingy" in Chengdu dialect); on the other hand, " The suffix "home" can also indicate the time, such as "spring home", "daytime home", "going home" and so on.