Standard Mandarin/Putonghua is another name for modern standard Chinese. It uses Beijing phonetics as the standard sound northern Mandarin as the basic dialect and classic modern vernacular writings as the grammatical norm.
Chinese is not equivalent to Putonghua. The promotion of Putonghua is not to artificially eliminate dialects. It is mainly to eliminate dialect barriers and facilitate social communication. It is not inconsistent with the people's use of traditional dialects.
Putonghua as a UN working language has become an important bridge of cultural exchange between China and foreigners to learn Chinese preferred language. As of 2015, 70% of China's population has the ability to use Mandarin, and there are still about 400 million people who are confined to understandable one-way communication.
The "Implementation Plan for the Popularization of the National Common Language and Written Project" plans to "by 2020, basically popularize the national common language throughout the country". Specifically, the national popularization rate of Putonghua will reach over 80% on average.
The term "Putonghua" appeared in the late Qing Dynasty. In 1909, the Qing court designated Beiping Mandarin as the " national language ". During the Republic of China, the pronunciation of the national language was formulated many times. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1955, the national language was designated as Mandarin.
The predecessor of Mandarin is Ming and Qing Mandarin, and earlier it was called Yayan. Compared with the dialects of the southeast region, modern Mandarin has fewer ancient sounds, and the " entering tone" has disappeared.
In 1909, the Qing government named Peking pronunciation as the national language. In the Republic of China, several standards were formulated. In 1918, the Beiyang government announced the first set of national phonetic alphabets recognized by the country.
In 1920, the "Beijing-State Controversy" broke out.
In 1932, the National Government Ministry of Education promulgated the "Commonly Used Words for National Phonetics". Mandarin standard. In Mandarin, Beijing phonetic is used as the standard tone instead of Luanping phonetic. After the standard was formulated, it was promoted to the whole country in 1955.
In 2000, the " Law of the People's Republic of China on the National Standard Spoken and Written Language " established the legal status of Putonghua and standardized Chinese characters as the national standard spoken and written language.