The Tatar is a Siberian type of Mongolian race. It has its own language, belongs to the West-Hungarian branch of the Turkic family of the Altaic language family, has scripts based on Arabic scripts, and its main belief is Islam.
The transliteration of the word “tatar” called by the Tatar nationality is often translated as “Tatar” and “Dazhu” in Chinese historical records. It is mainly distributed in Xinjiang, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, the Balkans, Kazakhstan and other countries. In the region, the main ethnic group is located outside of China. According to data from the sixth census in 2010, the Tatar ethnic group has a total of 3,556 people in China, making it the smallest ethnic group in China.
In China, the Tatar people are mainly scattered in the northern Tianshan Mountains in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The number of people in Yili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Urumqi City and other regions is relatively large, and they are more concentrated in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, Qitai, Jimusa Seoul, Altay, Changji and other places.
Daquan Tatar Township, Qitai County, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, is the only ethnic township in China with Tatar as the main body.
From the beginning of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, there were Tatar residents in towns and farming and pastoral areas in Yili, Tacheng, Altay, Dihua, Qitai and other regions.
According to investigations by the Xinjiang Provincial Police Department, there were 101 Russian-registered households in the Dihua (now Urumqi) trading circle in 1921, with more than 500 households belonging to them. Among them, the principal households refer to the Russian nationality, and the subsidiary households refer to ethnic groups such as Tatar and Uzbek.
In 1944, the Xinjiang Garrison Command found that the total population of the Tatar in Xinjiang was 5,610, accounting for 0.14% of the total population in Xinjiang; in 1947, the Xinjiang Provincial Police Department investigated the total population of the Tatar in Xinjiang at 5519, accounting for the total population of Xinjiang. 0.13% of the population.
In 1949, the total population of the Tatar nationality was 5,900. By the first national population census in 1953, it had risen to 6,900. A net increase of 1,000 in 5 years, an increase of 17%; an average annual increase of 200, with an average annual growth rate of 3.39%.
From 1954 to 1977, the total population of the Tatar people in Xinjiang declined rapidly. In 1954, the population of the Tatar people in Xinjiang was 6,300. By 1977, the population of the Tatar people in Xinjiang had dropped to 2,900. The main reason was that they moved back to the Soviet Union and were affected by the extreme “Left” route. Impact, renamed Uyghur or Kazakh.
In 1998, the Tatar population increased to 4,700, in 2000, it was 4,890 in the fifth national population census, and it was reduced to 3,556 in the sixth population census in 2010.
The Tatar people, like other Turkic-speaking peoples, had experienced a period of faith, a primitive religion with animism before accepting Islam. The ancestors of Tatar once regarded the wolf as the totem of the nation and believed that it had extraordinary supernatural power. Some relics can still be glimpsed in Tatar folklore and folklore such as "Gu Liqi Yao Ke" that has been passed down to this day. So far, the people of Tatar still retain the habit of wearing wolf fang ornaments and cherishing the back ankle bones of wolves. It is believed that they have extraordinary supernatural power to avoid evil.
The Tatar faith Islam has an earlier history. Around the 10th century AD, Islam was introduced into the Volga River valley where the ancestors of the Tatar tribe lived. The Tatars believe in Sunni and their teachings belong to the Hanafi school. Like all followers of Islam, the Tatar believers perform their religious obligations strictly in accordance with Islamic doctrines.
Before the founding of the People's Republic of China, religion had various privileges, and it often interfered in the culture, education, marriage, and family of the Tatar people. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, various religious privileges were abolished and the normal religious activities of the masses were protected. After the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee, the party’s religious faith freedom policy was implemented, and the majority of religious believers participated in various religious activities according to their personal wishes. The government's religious department has trained a group of religious figures who love the motherland, maintain national unity, and support socialism through training courses. Many of them have been elected as representatives of the people’s congresses at all levels and members of the CPPCC to participate in discussions, research, and formulation of the country. The major policies of the People’s Republic of China have played a positive role.
The traditional apparel of the Tatar nationality is very particular and varies with the place of residence. Urban male residents wear white shirts with wide-sleeved straight collars, open chests, lapels embroidered on the collar and cuffs, plus a black waist short vest, or a black gown with a belt tied at the waist. The pants are generally black, with wide crotch and tight legs. In winter and autumn, he wears all kinds of long and short coats, short jackets and fur coats made of animal fur. The feet are wearing leather shoes or long leather boots, and the elderly wear overshoes on the leather shoes or boots. In the past, poor herders could only wear a piece of leather with a rope to wrap their feet as shoes (commonly known as Piwozi). I like to wear black or black and white velvet embroidered caps in summer, and a black curly fur cap in winter. In addition to black, the small caps worn by men in rural and pastoral areas are red and green, and a cloth belt is usually worn on their clothes.
Urban female residents like to wear wide leggings and wide, long skirts with ruffles on the bottom. The colors are mostly white, yellow, and sauce. Wear leather shoes on your feet. Like to wear velvet flower hats with pearls, young women and older women also wear silk scarves on the hats, decorated with earrings, bracelets, rings, necklaces, brooches, etc. Women in rural and pastoral areas generally like to wear a turban. After the founding of New China, significant changes have taken place in men's and women's clothing. Suits and various fashionable clothing have become more and more popular among the Tatar people, especially young men and women.
Tatar women are good at embroidering. Their dexterous hands not only embroider beautiful patterns on various apparels, but also embroider colorful patterns and patterns on tablecloths, wall fences, bed fences, etc. The girls also put on their dowry Embroidered with floral patterns. Most of the boys also use the level of embroidery of the girls as one of the conditions for choosing a spouse.
While developing the education business of their own people, the Tatar nationality has done a lot of work to establish the education business in Xinjiang. Among the first batch of modern schools in Xinjiang, many Tatars participated in the organization, and many Tatar intellectuals taught in Uyghur schools across Xinjiang and trained a large number of talents. In 1934, the Tatar Culture Promotion Association was established in Dihua, and branches were also established in Yining and Tacheng. The Promotion Association not only opened many Tatar schools, but also launched a literacy campaign to improve the cultural quality of the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang. Many Tatar intellectuals are dedicated to running schools and teaching, and some even go deep into rural and pastoral areas. They have a certain influence not only among the Tatar people, but also among the Uyghur, Hui, Kazakh, Xibe, and Uzbek people.
According to statistics from the fifth population census in 2000, there are 4,045 Tatar people with a culture level of elementary school or above, accounting for 97.32% of the population aged 6 and over. The Tatar people have a high school, technical secondary school, college, or university degree or above. The proportions of the population accounted for 12.66%, 10.04%, 7.01%, and 6.45% respectively. The number of people with various culture levels per 10,000 population were: 1,251 people in universities (including postgraduates and junior colleges), 2,095 people in high schools (including secondary schools), There are 2,902 people in junior high school and 2,717 people in elementary school. The Tatar population has a relatively large proportion of people receiving high-degree education, and the illiteracy rate is very low. The illiterate and semi-illiterate rate is only 2.13%.
The folk literature works of the Tatar people are rich, including myths and legends, stories, proverbs, ballads, riddles, etc., especially their poems and folk songs are well-known among the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang.
There is a saying among the Tatars: "Where there are poetry, there are Tatars, and there must be poetry in the places where Tatars live." Tatar folk song "Baramisken" (meaning "poor young man"), etc. It is widely circulated among all ethnic groups in Xinjiang and has become a popular song in Xinjiang. It is widely used in weddings and festivals. In addition, folk songs such as "Swan March", "Baihebian", and "Nagang" are also loved by people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang.
The written literature of the Tatars includes long narrative poems, love poems, novels, dramas, operas, etc. The Tatars also have many historical, literature, medicine, religious and other classics.
The Tatar residents living in the city usually form their own courtyards in their families. The courtyards are planted with fruit trees, flowers and plants, with paths and corridors, and the environment is quiet, which are arranged into small gardens that are pleasant to rest and relax.
Houses are mostly built with adobe, bricks, wood, stones and other materials. The door is generally open towards the shade, the roof is herringbone, the upper cover is iron, painted in green, blue and other colors. Flat roofs are also built, with thick grass mud on the roof, and drainage pipes on the top. The walls are mostly painted light blue with lime, and the inner layer of double-glazed windows is movable, which can be removed in summer and installed in winter. There are also small holes in the windows for ventilation. The floor in the house is cement or brick. The most representative folk residence of the Tatar nationality is Nogaikuti City on the west side of Yining City. The courtyards of the Tatar residents in the city are rectangular buildings with mainly brick and wood structures. The walls inside and outside the courtyard are whitewashed, and the gate lintel of the courtyard is carved with traditional Tatar patterns. In addition to housing, the courtyard is also equipped with kitchens, warehouses, bathrooms, flower ponds, orchards, livestock pens, etc. The walls of the houses in the courtyard are very thick, some roofs are slightly sloped, and some roofs are covered with iron sheets to prevent leakage or rain. The snow melted. The eaves are decorated with red or blue bricks. Blue bricks or blue bricks are used to form the window edges, and all kinds of peculiar and beautiful flowers are carved on the prismatic window frames. The houses in the courtyard are generally south-to-north, with three houses in one light and two dark. The door of the house in the middle opens outwards, and the doors of the two houses inside open to the inside; the inside and outside of the walls are painted with lime with emerald blue and ultramarine (paint). Each house is equipped with a fireplace, the windows are double-glazed, curtains are hung on the windows, and the floor is covered with carpets, which are neatly and beautifully arranged.
In places with abundant forest resources, usually live in wooden houses, paint the roof and floor with sky blue and orange-purple paint respectively. There are air circulation holes in the walls or windows, which can be closed tightly in winter and opened in summer to prevent the wood from decay. , And can absorb fresh air to keep the room cool. The Tatar people in the pastoral area adapt to nomadic life and live in yurts, whose form and structure are basically the same as those of the Kazakhs.
The Tatar Theatre Company was established in the early 1930s. It was once an influential literary and artistic group active in Yining, Tacheng, Urumqi and other places. In addition to the theme of affection between men and women, the repertoire also exposes the dark side of society, praising the diligence, wisdom, simplicity, and kindness of the working people. ", "Xungan Yuri Tuzi", "Ahmati in Part-time Work", "Tabri Dick", "For Others" and other repertoires were put on the stage.
Singing and dancing
The Tatar music has a bright rhythm, a smooth and gorgeous melody, a short and capable structure, beautiful and easy to catch, and a passionate mood. When singing and dancing, it is often accompanied by screaming calls and whistles when Singing and dancing are strong, showing the Tatar enthusiasm A bold, lively and optimistic national character.
There are many types of Tatar musical instruments, such as "Cunei" (a wooden flute with two holes), "Corbis (a harmonica played between the lips), and a two-string violin.
Sing and dance with accordion, mandolin and other accompaniment. The Tatar dance moves are dexterous, lively, and cheerful. Men mostly use kicking, squatting, jumping and other leg movements, while women mostly use hand and waist movements. It combines the characteristics of Uyghur, Russian, Uzbek and other ethnic dances, and has its own unique style.
On festive days, the Tatar people often hold mass dance competitions.
The main staple foods of the Tatar people are "Gobuy West" (baked noodles), pilaf, naan, noodles, pies, etc.; they like beef and mutton and eat fewer vegetables, mainly potatoes, pumpkins, tomatoes, cabbage, and onions. , Carrots, etc. The most distinctive Tatar foods are "Gubaidia" and "Itabarisi". "Cubaidi" is a kind of cake made by washing the rice, drying it, covering with cream, dried apricots, and raisins, and baking it in the stove. Its flavor is sweet and delicious; "Itbarysi" The method is the same as "Gubaidi", except that the ingredients are mainly pumpkin, and rice and meat are added.
Tatar women are good at making all kinds of cakes. The cakes they make are not only delicious and varied, but also beautiful in shape. In addition to drinking all kinds of tea, the Tatar people also like to drink milk tea and horse milk. The drinks with the richest ethnic characteristics are "Kelsiman" and "Kessel". "Kelsiman" is similar to beer and is brewed with honey and beer after fermentation; "Kessel" is wine made from wild grapes, both of which are the favorite beverages of the Tatar people.
The diet of the Tatar people is customary for three meals a day, and the whole family sits together during the meal, and the housewife presides over the meal. Wash your hands before and after meals, chant and pray, wealthy people have the habit of eating fruits after meals. I learned to use spoons and chopsticks when I came to Xinjiang. At the beginning of moving to Xinjiang, Tatar residents were not used to eating all kinds of stir-fried dishes. Later, under the influence of other ethnic groups, stir-fried dishes gradually became part of the daily diet of Tatar residents.
The traditional festivals of the Tatar people mainly include the "Rouzi Festival", "Gurbang Festival" and "Saban Festival".
"Ruzi" is Persian, meaning "fast". Islamic law stipulates that adult Muslims should fast for one month in each Ramadan, and the meat festival is held on October 1st of each year in the Islamic calendar, mainly to celebrate the expiry of Ramadan. Before the holiday, every house is cleaned, painted walls, fried buns, oil cakes, pastries, jams and other foods. In the morning of the festival, adult men go to the mosque for festival service. After the service is over, people go to the tomb to mourn the dead relatives, and then start the lively festival activities.
"Gurbang" is Arabic, meaning "sacrifice" and "sacrifice", which evolved according to the religious legends of ancient Arab regions. According to the Islamic Sharia law, the religious calendar is the date of the pilgrimage to Mecca for followers to perform their religious tasks in the first ten days of December each year, and the slaughter of cattle and sheep is celebrated on the last day (that is, December 10). Unlike the Rouzi Festival, the Gurbang Festival requires pre-preparation of livestock as "sacrifices". After the men returned home from the mosque, the first thing they did was to slaughter the cattle and sheep. It is said that the morning after the festival is the best time to sacrifice animals and please Allah. During the festival, almost every family has to cook meat for guests and worship each other.
Saban Festival is a traditional festival unique to the Tatar people. "Saban" is a kind of agricultural tool used by the Tatar people to plow the land. According to Tatar legend, the production of Saban promoted the development of the agricultural productivity of the Tatar people. In order to commemorate the invention of this new type of plow, the Tatar people celebrate every year during the busy farming period from June 20 to 25. Over time, this celebration has evolved into a traditional festival of the Tatar people. Saban Festival celebrations are mostly carried out in beautiful places. On the festival day, various entertainment activities such as wrestling, running, sack race, key walking, long jump, climbing, horse racing, etc. are held, and cultural programs are performed.