Tujia nationality(Tujia Language: Bifzivkar) is a nation with a long history. It has a national language. It belongs to the Tibeto Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. It is close to the Yi language branch. There is no native language and Chinese is commonly used.
Tujia people are mainly distributed in the Wuling Mountain Area in the border area of Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, and Guizhou. The Tujia Nationality in Hunan Province is mainly distributed in Yongshun, Longshan, Baojing, Guzhang, and other counties in Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Cili, Sangzhi and other counties in Zhangjiajie City, Shimen, and other counties in Changde City; Hubei Province is mainly distributed in Kaifeng, Hefeng, Xianfeng, Xuanen, Jianshi, Badong, Enshi, Lichuan and other counties in Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, and Changyang and Wufeng counties in Yichang city; Chongqing is mainly distributed in Qianjiang, Youyang, Shizhu, Xiushan, Pengshui and other counties in Southeast Chongqing; Guizhou is mainly distributed in Yanhe, Yinjiang, Sinan, Jiangkou, Dejiang and other counties in Northeast Guizhou.
Tujia is also called Biji and bijika. The northern branch of Tujia nationality (Wufeng, Changyang, Southeastern Chongqing, northeastern Guizhou in Hunan Province, Xiangxi Prefecture, Zhangjiajie City, Enshi Prefecture and Yichang City in Hubei Province) calls itself "Bizika, Rijeka, Rijeka and so on". The southern Tujia people are only distributed in a few villages in Luxi County, Xiangxi Prefecture, Hunan Province. It calls itself "Mengzi". The southern Tujia language can not communicate with the northern Tujia language. It is not a mixture of Tujia and Chinese. Now it is only used by more than 900 people in Luxi.
Tujia language belongs to Tibeto Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family, Tujia language branch. Some people think that it belongs to the Burmese Yi language branch, which is a very old and unique language in the Tibeto Burmese language family. The vast majority of people speak Chinese, but only a few communities still retain the Tujia language. There is no native language. At present, the Latin language created in 1984 is used. It is in Chinese. Worship ancestors and believe in polytheism.
At present, there are different opinions about its origin. One is the descendant of Ba people; the other is the descendant of a woman who moved from Guizhou to Xiangxi in ancient times; the other is the descendant of Baiyi craftsmen who moved from Jiangxi to Xiangxi from the end of Tang Dynasty to the beginning of Five Dynasties (around 910). Some people think it is the descendant of Han border guards and Native women. According to the latest gene survey results, Tujia nationality is mainly composed of Diqiang and Baiyue nationalities, with many elements such as Han, Miao, Yao, Tungusic, Eastern Europe, and so on, but its language and culture are obviously born out of ancient Qiang. Today's Qiang nationality is the one that retains the most traditional culture and the name of Qiang Nationality in ancient Qiang di. They are brothers with Burmese (Burmese), Tibetan, Yi, Tujia, Manipur, Kelun, rookie, Jingpo (Kaqin), Bai, Hani, Lisu, Luoba, Naxi, Lahu, Pumi, Jino, Menba, etc Ancient Qiang.
In history, the feudal lord's economy had a certain development since the Five Dynasties (907-979). In the Qing Dynasty Yongzheng (1723-1735), the feudal lord's economy gradually transited to the landlord's economy. Before the founding of new China, the social economy was in the stage of feudal landlord economic development. After the founding of new China, social reform was carried out and two autonomous prefectures were established jointly with the Miao nationality.
More than 2000 years ago, they settled in today's western Hunan and Western Hubei. Together with other ethnic minorities, they were called "Wuling man" or "Wuxi man". After the founding of new China, it was officially named Tujia.
Tujia costumes are now made up of short clothes with large sleeves, left jacket and open flaps, 2-3-layer lace, and hemmed trousers or skirts; men's wear is a pair of short shirts. "Catch up with the year", that is, 1-2 days in advance, is an important festival. Tujia men wear Pipa Lapel tops and wrapped in blue silk headwear. Women wear a left-wing coat, roll two or three lace, sleeves are relatively wide, under the edge of the pants or eight Luo skirt, like to wear a variety of gold, silver, jade ornaments. But as Miao silver ornaments, generally not too prominent part. After the change of the soil and return to the flow, influenced by the Han nationality, the color must be red. Over time, not only in the clothing but also in life, there is a custom of whether red or not to be happy, and there must be a red custom.
After the "changing the land to return to the flow", due to the suppression of the feudal dynasty and the strong influence of the Central Plains culture, Tujia nationality's clothing and men's clothing are full-length styles, which changed the national clothing of "men and women's clothing is not separated", and Tujia nationality's home weaving lace keeps the strong characteristics of their own national clothing.
The left picture is a propaganda map of Zhangjiajie, in which four women, two in Tujia, one in Miao silver, and one for Bai.