Uygur is a multi-source ethnic group, the most important source of which are two branches: one is the Huihe people from the Mongolian grassland, the other is the indigenous people in the oasis of Southern Xinjiang. The two groups of people met on a large scale in 840 AD and were completely integrated in the early 16th century. In the long process of historical development, the Uygur people have created an excellent culture with diligence and wisdom, and have unique national customs.
"Uygur" is the Uygur people's self claim, which means "united". The Uygur mainly live in Kashi and Hotan, Aksu, and Korla areas to the south of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The rest live in Urumqi and Ili to the north of Tianshan Mountain, and a small number live in Taoyuan and Changde of Hunan Province, Kaifeng, and Zhengzhou of Henan Province.
Uygur people are particular about hospitality and hospitality. If visitors want to invite them to sit on the table and put Nang, various cakes, rock sugar, etc. in summer, they also need to put some melons and fruits and pour tea or milk tea for them first. When the meal is ready, you can serve it. If you use pilaf to treat the guests, you should bring a pot of water before the meal and ask the guests to wash their hands. After dinner, the elder will lead the guests to "DUWA". After the host has finished packing, the guests can leave. When eating, guests should not fiddle with the food on the plate or go to the cooker. Generally, they should not leave the food in the bowl. At the same time, they should pay attention not to let the rice crumbs fall to the ground. If they fall to the ground carelessly, they should pick them up and put them on the "rice list" in front of them. When eating pilaf, do not put the pilaf into the plate. At the end of the meal, if an elder is leading the "DUWA", the guests can't look around or stand up. When eating, the elderly sit at the table, and the whole family sits together. They must wash their hands before and after meals. After washing, they can only use a handkerchief or cloth to dry. They don't want to throw water without permission. They think it's impolite.
When a young woman wants to get married, the Imam or Imam (both religious professionals) recite scriptures, dip the two pieces of dry Nang with salt water, and let the bridegroom and bride eat them on the spot, which means that from then on, like Nang and saltwater, they will share weal and woe and live forever. At the wedding banquet, white rice sheets should be spread on the carpet. Nang, wedding candy, raisins, jujubes, cakes, fried Sanzi should be placed first, and then mutton and rice should be grasped.
Foldable national festivals
Uygur people believe in Islam. Traditional festivals include Rouzi Festival, Urban Festival, Noruz Festival, etc. Uygur people attach great importance to traditional festivals, especially the "garbage" festival. At that time, every household has to slaughter sheep, cook meat and make various cakes. The slaughtered livestock can not be sold, except the sheepskin and intestines sent to mosques and religious professionals, the rest is used for self-feeding and entertaining guests. During the festival of sakes, adult believers fast for one month. During fasting, meals are only eaten before sunrise and after sunset. No food or drink is allowed during the day. Renzi Festival is translated as "Eid al Fitr". According to Islamic rules, fasting begins one month before the festival. That is, after sunrise and before sunset are not allowed to eat, 30 days after the expiration of fast, to restore the habit of eating and drinking during the day. Before Eid al Fitr, every family is used to frying Sanzi, fragrant oil, baking all kinds of snacks, and preparing festival food. During the festival, everyone wore new clothes and hats and congratulated each other.
During the festival, they killed sheep or camels, went to the mosque for a gathering, sang and danced, and held horse racing, Diaoyang, and wrestling activities.
The traditional Uyghur clothing is full of characteristics: men wear long robes with "form loop", right Lapel slanting collar, no buttons, and the waist is tied with a long silk scarf or cloth towel; rural women often wear a cardigan over a wide sleeve dress; urban women now wear more suits and skirts; Uyghur men and women like to wear shoes and leather boots, leather boots plus plastic overshoes; men and women, old and young, all wear small flowers with four ridges Some of them are decorated with colorful beads; women often use earrings, bracelets, and necklaces as decorations, sometimes dye their nails and use two eyebrows to draw eyebrows;
Uygur girls use long hair as beauty, and they usually wear more than ten thin hair braids before marriage, but they usually wear two long braids after marriage, the braids are scattered, and there are different styles on their heads There are all kinds of headwear, and there are also headdresses with braids in a bun. Others tie their braids into knots. Carpets, flower hats, Adlai silk, folk printed cloth, and Yingjisha knife are the most famous traditional crafts of the Uygur people.
The flower hat is an integral part of Uygur clothing and one of the beautiful symbols of Uygur. As early as the Tang Dynasty, men in the western regions often wore felt hats with rolling eaves and pointed roofs, which looked like today's "four tiles". In the Ming Dynasty, influenced by Arab and Central Asian culture, Uygur men cut their hair and wore small embroidered caps. In the early Qing Dynasty, there were new developments in materials and styles of Uygur flower caps. Winter with skin, summer with silk, before the insertion of bird feathers. Women's hats are decorated with gold and silver thread embroidery. Kagan's four ridge Flower Hat stands out and has almost become the mainstream of Uygur Flower Hat and continues to this day. Through the continuous innovation of the Uygur people all over the world, the workmanship of the flower cap is becoming more and more refined and the variety is more and more diverse. However, there are mainly two kinds of "Diliman" and "Badanmu", collectively referred to as "GABA" (small-flowered hat with four ridges). General manager: clear dress form, diverse patterns, bright colors, simple patterns, and exquisite workmanship.