Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty Yang Jian (July 21, 541 -August 13, 604), was born in Huayin, Hongnong County (now Huayin City, Shaanxi Province). The 14th grandson of Han Taiwei Yang Zhen, the founding emperor of the Sui Dynasty, reigned from the first year of Emperor Kaihuang (581) to the fourth year of Renshou (604). Na Luoyan in small characters in Xianbei, with the surname Pu Liuru in Xianbei, Yang Jian resumed the Yang family after taking power.
His father Yang Zhong was a military aristocrat from the Western Wei Dynasty and the Northern Zhou Dynasty. Emperor Wu of the Northern Zhou Dynasty was named Suiguo Duke, and Yang Jian inherited his father's title. Emperor Xuan of the Northern Zhou Dynasty succeeded to the throne, with Yang Jian as the upper pillar country and Da Sima, and his position was prosperous. Zhou Dating first year (581 years), Yang Jian by the North Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou abdication as emperor, reign title Kaihuang. After Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty took the throne, he carried out a series of reforms in political and economic systems. Amend the criminal laws and systems to make them suitable for China after the reunification of the North and the South. A three-province and six-department system were implemented in the central government, and the local three-level system of a state, county, and the county were changed to a two-level system of state and county, thus consolidating centralized power. Repeated tax cuts have reduced the burden on the people, promoted national agricultural production, and stabilized economic development. Kai Huang nine years (589 years), the king sent Yang Guang south Ping Chen, a unified North, and South. Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty adopted military defensive and political policies for the surrounding ethnic groups to effectively deal with ethnic contradictions.  He was honored as the "sage khan" by the northern minorities. During the reign of Emperor Kaihuang, the Sui Dynasty had a vast territory with a population of more than 7 million households.
During the twenty-four years of Emperor Wen's reign, he was determined to reform and achieved outstanding political achievements. But the reign of the late gradually suspicious, killing hero, and listen to literature Queens words, deposed prince Yang Yong Li Jin Wang Yang Guang Prince, planted the seeds of subjugation. In the fourth year of Renshou (604), he died strangely in Renshou Palace. At the age of 64, he was buried in Tailing.
(1)Three provinces and six departments.
Yang Jian abolished the out-of-date Northern Zhouguan (Heaven, Earth, Spring, Autumn, Winter, Summer) system and restored the system of the Han and Wei Dynasties, basically establishing the three provinces and six ministries system. Yang Jian established three divisions, three publics, and five provinces in the central government. The third division and the third public are just a kind of honorary title. It is the five provinces that hold power, namely, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Province of Secretary, the Province of Menxia, the Province of Internal History, and the Province of Shangshu. The Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Secretary do not play an important role in national government affairs. The Ministry of Internal Affairs is the eunuch's institution of the palace, which manages the affairs of the palace. The Secretary Province is in charge of the booking calendar and has fewer affairs. It is the other three provinces that are at work. Inner History, Menxia, and Shangshu are all the highest government agencies. The Ministry of Internal History is responsible for decision-making, the Ministry of Minority is responsible for deliberation, and the Province of Shangshu is responsible for implementation. This is the three-province system that was later inherited by the Tang Dynasty.
There are six departments under Shangshu Province: Officials, Civilians, Rites, Soldiers, Criminals, and Workers. Each book is set up to be in charge of the government affairs of the department. The specific offices are six departments: the Ministry of Civil Affairs, which is in charge of the appointment, dismissal, assessment, promotion, and transfer of officials throughout the country; the Ministry of Civil Affairs, which is in charge of the country's land, household registration, taxes, and fiscal revenues and expenditures; the Ministry of Ritual, which is in charge of sacrifices, etiquette, and foreign exchanges; In charge of the selection of military attachés across the country, and military status, ordnance, etc.; the Ministry of Penalty, in charge of the nation's criminal laws and prison breaks; the Ministry of Engineering, in charge of various projects, craftsmen, water conservancy, and transportation. In the beginning, the six departments were called Liu Cao, which was six offices. The chief of the six books is Shangshu. The establishment of the six ministries became a fixed system of the central government in the feudal countries of subsequent generations. The three provinces and six ministries have a clear division of labor, tight organization, and strengthened centralization.
In the tenth year of Emperor Kaihuang (590 years), Yang Jianzhao's soldiers entered the household registration of the prefecture and county, and the combination of soldiers and farmers began. Yang Jian also reformed local institutions. His adoption of the branch Book Yang Shangxi 's "going to keep busy, too small and large" proposal, the original chaotic place Bureaucracy streamlined from the state, county, the county for the state and county levels, undo more than 500 county territory. At the same time, a large number of redundant officials were eliminated and some counties were merged. It greatly saves government expenditures, improves administrative efficiency, and reduces the burden on the people. To better exercise power and control localities, Yang Jian ordered that all officials with grade 9 or above be appointed and removed by the central government. The official appointment rights are all controlled by the official department, and local officials are prohibited from hiring assistants on the spot. And every year, the officials have to conduct assessments to determine rewards, punishments, and promotions. Later, a three-year tenure system was implemented. Yang Jian simplified the local administrative agencies, abolished the Nine Pin Palace Personnel Law, and initiated the imperial examination system. Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty ordered the states to select three gorgeous and talented people each year to be sent to the central government. Later, Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty also ordered that the rank of Beijing officials and above should be governed by the local officials, who should be responsible for the jury who are virtuous and talented. This system of selecting government officials allows talented people from all walks of life to have the opportunity to work for the government. The imperial examination system initiated and established by Yang Jian survived for more than 1,300 years in Chinese history and was not abolished until the end of the Qing Dynasty. However, countries such as the United States and Britain at that time were surprised and borrowed this selection system as a method of hiring government clerks.
(3)Revision of Kaihuang law
The law of the Northern Zhou Dynasty was cruel and chaotic. After the establishment of the Sui Dynasty, in 581, Yang Jian ordered Gao Xun and others to draw up the Kaihuang law by referring to the old laws of the Wei and Jin Dynasties. In the third year of Kaihuang (583), Yang Jian ordered Su Wei and Niu Hong to amend the new law and delete the harsh provisions. The Kaihuang law abolished the original cruel criminal laws, such as palace punishment, car split, and owl leader. It is stipulated that there is no need for the punishment of extermination. After subtracting 81 capital crimes, 154 crimes of miscarriage, and more than 1000 crimes of apprenticeship and staff, 500 laws and decrees were retained. There are five kinds of punishment: death, exile, apprentice, cane, and flogging. Basically completed the process of penalty system reform since Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty, which is the feudal five penalty system. "Reading Tongjianlun" praised and commented: "the ancient corporal punishment is not reused, and the Chinese language is benevolent. However, the punishment of the Han Dynasty was mostly controlled by it, so since the Wu Hu period, the cannibalism of animals has been wantonly miserable. As for the world of Tuoba, Yuwen, and Gaoshi, the death penalty was set at five levels: Qing, Jiao, Jian, Xiao, and Zhe, and the punishment of the porter, all of which were different from the Han method. According to the law of the Sui Dynasty, there are two ways to make the death penalty: strangulation and chopping, changing whip into cane, changing cane into flogging, no treason, and no family punishment, which are inherited by the government today. "
(4)Rectify the administration of officials
In the aspect of clarifying the administration of officials, Yang Jian has made great efforts to govern the country since he won the state, and his talent is mean, so he can't tolerate corruption and bending the law. Yang Jian ordered Liu Sheng to patrol the 52 prefectures of Hebei Province in an orderly manner, playing a role in exempting more than 200 long officials from taking bribes. This is also the reason for the prosperity of emperor Gaozu in the Sui Dynasty.
In the Sui and Han Dynasties, a new city was built in the East and south of Chang'an City, which was named Daxing city. It was located in today's Xi'an City, East, South, and west of the city. Chang'an City in Tang Dynasty. At the beginning of the Sui Dynasty, the capital city of Chang'an was still in ruins due to war. Moreover, the palace was too small to meet the needs of the new unified national capital. Also, for hundreds of years, the urban sewage has been precipitated, which makes it difficult to discharge, and the drinking water supply has become a problem. Therefore, Yang Jian abandoned the old Chang'an city to the north of Longshore and chose a new site to the southeast of Han Chang'an city to the south of Longshore.
(6)Setting up granaries
In the Sui Dynasty, many granaries were built all over the country, among which the famous ones are Xingluo granary, Hua Luo granary, Changping granary, Liyang granary, and Guangdong granary. The stored grain is more than one million stone. In the 11th year of Zhenguan, Ma Zhou, the censor of supervision, said to Li Shimin, Taizong of Tang Dynasty: "Luokou was stored in the Sui family, but Li mi was because of it; Xijing Treasury was also used by the state, which has not been used up to now." Sui Dynasty has been extinct for 20 years, and Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty has been dead for 33 years, but the food, cloth, and silk have not been used up at that time. In 1969, the Zhanjiang site, a granary of the Sui Dynasty, was discovered in Luoyang. It covers an area of more than 450000 square meters, with 259-grain cellars. There is also a grain cellar with 500000 Jin of carbonized millet. This shows the prosperity and prosperity of the Sui Dynasty.
(1)Changing the military system
Militarily, Yang Jian changed the situation of the separation of army and agriculture when the government and army system were first established. During the war, the imperial court sent other generals to gather the soldiers from different regions to fight.
(2)Unify the whole country
A: Merge with Xiliang
Xiliang was built by Xiao Chen, the sun of Xiao Yan, Emperor Wu of the Southern Liang Dynasty. In the beginning, the capital of Xiliang was Xiangyang. Later, it was moved to Jiangling. There were three emperors in the former and the latter, a total of 33 years. Housing was actually a vassal of the Western Wei Dynasty, the Northern Zhou Dynasty, and the Sui Dynasty. In the Western Wei Dynasty, Northern Zhou Dynasty, and Sui Dynasty, a general manager was set up in Jiangling to supervise and unify the country. In the seventh year of Kaihuang (587), Yang Jian recruited Xiao Cong, the Later Liang emperor, to Chang'an, and sent troops to take charge of Jiangling to abolish the state of Liang.
B: Destroy Nanchen
In October of the eighth year of Kaihuang (588), Yang Jian set up the Huainan Xingtai province in Shouchun. He took Yang Guang, king of Jin, as the minister, and was fully responsible for the battle against Chen. Soon after, Yang Guang, king of Qin Yang Jun, and Qinghe Gongyang Su were the marching marshals. Yang Guang left Liuhe, Yang Jun left Xiangyang, Yang Su left Yongan, Liu renin left Jiangling, Wang Shiji left Qichun, Han Qihu left Lujiang, he rubs left Guangling, and Yan Rong left Donghai. The Sui army was in charge of 90 soldiers and 518000 soldiers, all of which were under Yang Guangjie's command. From the sea in the east to Bashu in the west, they launched an all-round attack on Chen.
(1)Emperor Wen's return to the Han Dynasty
During the Northern Qi Dynasty and the Northern Zhou Dynasty, the upper-class nobles were once keen on Xianbei and Xihu. After the reign of Emperor Wu of the Northern Zhou Dynasty, he began to advocate Sinicization. In 577, the Northern Zhou Dynasty destroyed the Northern Qi Dynasty and unified the north. However, due to the early death of Emperor Wu of the Northern Zhou Dynasty, the process of Sinicization of the Northern Zhou Dynasty was once stranded. Yang Jian's father, Yang Zhong, was given the surname of Pu Liuru for his contribution to Yu Wentai. After Yang Jian came to power, he immediately restored his Han surname and began to sinicize.
Yang Jian played an important role in the development and inheritance of Han culture because the cultural classics of the spring and Autumn period and the Han Dynasty were destroyed and lost due to hundreds of years of a scuffle. In 583, Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty issued an imperial edict, offering a volume of books and a piece of silk. "Different folk books often come out from time to time" and "in one or two years, the books are slightly prepared". In the Sui Dynasty, there were 370000 volumes and 77000 kinds of books. But most of the books were destroyed in the war. In the time of Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty, most books were 80000 volumes. Scholars of the Tang Dynasty wrote 28467 volumes. Before Tang Dynasty, there were only 28469 volumes left. Most of these books could not escape the war. "Northern history," said: "since the state and county all set doctor Xi Liyan."
At the beginning of the Sui Dynasty, Emperor Wen began a series of measures to revive Buddhism on a large scale, including monks, temples, statues, and scriptures. Yang Jian's overall revival of Buddhism is due to both personal belief and social and historical reasons. Emperor Wu of Zhou used administrative means to suppress Buddhism, which inevitably led to the dissatisfaction of the majority of believers. On the contrary, it often led to more intense religious feelings of believers. Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty issued a general edict to the whole world, fully supported and revived Buddhism, and called the refugees to return to the land for cultivation, which was very beneficial for the Sui Dynasty to win the hearts of the people and consolidate its rule. The development of Buddhism in the Sui Dynasty is mainly reflected in the following aspects: the integration of northern and southern styles, the development of Buddhist righteousness, the establishment of Sinicized Buddhist sects, the translation and compilation of Buddhist scriptures, the prosperity of Folk Buddhism, the development of Buddhist culture and art, and the spread of Buddhism from China to neighboring countries.
(3)The beginning of the imperial examination
In the northern and Southern Dynasties, to select useful talents, the imperial examination system such as "jingling" had sprouted. However, the nine grades system since the Wei and Jin Dynasties continued to be implemented. In the Sui Dynasty, in 587, Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty formally set up the examination system for different subjects to replace the nine-grade middle school system. Since then, officials were selected regardless of their family status. In the early days of the imperial examination system, there was a state-year-old tribute, stipulating that each state would send three people to the central government every year to take part in the examination of scholars and Mingjing. In 606, Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty added Jinshi. At that time, the strategy of scholar examination, the current policy of Jinshi examination, and the practice of Mingjing examination formed a complete national talent selection system.