Introduction of Project 985
On May 4, 1998, President Jiang Zemin declared to the whole society on behalf of the Communist Party of China and the Central People's Government of the people's Republic of China at the meeting celebrating the 100th anniversary of the founding of Peking University: "in order to realize modernization, China needs to have a number of first-class universities with world advanced level." In 1999, the State Council approved the Ministry of Education's "action plan for the revitalization of education in the 21st century", and the "985 Project" was officially launched.
The first phase of "985 Project" was first implemented in Peking University and Tsinghua University. In 2004, according to the "action plan for the revitalization of education 2003-2007", the Ministry of education and the Ministry of Finance issued the "opinions of the Ministry of education and the Ministry of Finance on continuing to implement the" 985 Project "construction project, and started the second phase construction.
In 2010, according to the outline of national medium and long term education reform and development plan (2010-2020), the Ministry of education and the Ministry of Finance issued the opinions of the Ministry of education and the Ministry of Finance on accelerating the construction of world-class universities and high-level universities.
On December 30, 2011, Yuan Guiren, Minister of education, said at the 24th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the 11th National People's Congress that there would be no new schools for the two projects. At the same time, in order to focus on discipline orientation and introduce competition mechanism, he implemented the "985 Project advantage discipline innovation platform".
Achievements of Project 985
As the main body of graduate education, "985 Project" schools award more than 50% of the total number of doctoral degrees every year. In the 984 National Excellent Doctoral Dissertations selected from 1999 to 2008, more than 60% of the training units are "985 Project" schools. Among the countries and regions that have signed bilateral agreements with China on mutual recognition of degrees, academic qualifications and diplomas, the agreements signed with developed countries are basically after the implementation of "985 Project".
During 1999-2008, academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences were co elected five times. Among the newly elected academicians, the proportion of "985 Project" schools continued to increase, from 20% in 1999 to 55% in 2007. In the past ten years, more than 50% of the total number of teachers in "985 Project" schools have received "National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars".
Independent innovation ability
In 2004, Central South University and Northwestern Polytechnic University respectively won the first prize of National Technological Invention Award in 2004, breaking the situation that the award has been vacant for six consecutive years. From 1999 to 2008, four of the five first prizes of national technological invention awards (general projects) were awarded by "985 Project" school. In 2006, Nanjing University won the first prize of National Natural Science Award. In the first prize of the national science and technology progress award from 1999 to 2008, 20% of the "985 Project" schools were the first to complete.
Achievements of science and technology innovation platform construction
The "985 Project" school has undertaken 40% of the "973 Plan" projects and nearly 50% of the major research projects of NSFC in China. The average scientific research funding has increased from 110 million yuan in 1999 to 710 million yuan in 2008. More than 50% of the national laboratories and nearly 50% of the state key laboratories are supported by "985 Project" schools. Among the 80 national engineering research centers evaluated by the national development and Reform Commission in 2008, the number of engineering centers of "985 Project" school only accounts for 20% of the whole country, but it won the first place in the evaluation and occupied five seats in the top ten.
Promoting the prosperity of philosophy and Social Sciences
From 1999 to 2008, "985 Project" school gathered more than 70% of the national key disciplines of Humanities and Social Sciences and 2 / 3 of the humanities and social sciences research bases, produced a number of influential innovative achievements in philosophy and Social Sciences, provided a number of high-quality consulting reports and policy suggestions, and formulated major policies, laws and regulations in China's social, political, economic, cultural and other aspects It played a certain role in the process.
In 2001, only 40 subjects of "985 Project" school were selected to enter ESI database. By 2008, the number of subjects entering ESI database has nearly quadrupled, and 140 subjects of 34 schools have been selected to enter ESI database, mainly focusing on engineering, chemistry, materials science, physics, clinical medicine and other subjects. According to the statistics of the total number of citations, 26 disciplines of 10 universities have entered the top 100 universities in the world. The number of international papers published by Peking University, Tsinghua University, Harbin Institute of Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Nanjing University, Zhejiang University, China University of science and technology and Xi'an Jiaotong University has increased nearly four times in the past ten years, while the number of papers cited has increased 10 times, which shows that the growth rate of quality is higher than that of quantity.
Under the background of increasingly fierce competition in comprehensive national strength, China took the lead in proposing and implementing the "985 Project" with the goal of building a world-class university, which has attracted the attention of many national and regional governments. Many countries and regions have invested heavily to support the implementation of the special plan to build high-level universities. For example, Japan's "Research Center for excellence in the 21st century" program, Germany's "elite university" program, and Taiwan's "towards top universities" program. Britain, France, Malaysia, India, Russia and other countries are also brewing similar construction plans.